Charaka Shareera Sthana 8th Chapter Jaati Sootriya Shareeram

Charaka Shareera Sthana 8th Chapter Jaati Sootriya Shareeram

8th chapter of Charaka Shareera sthana deals with “The method of Procreation “as conducive to the understanding of the human body. The chapter name is Jatisutriyam Shaareeram.
Read – Embryology As Per Ayurveda
Table of Contents

Method of Procreation
We shall now explore the chapter on “The method of Procreation “as conducive to the understanding of the human body. Thus said Lord Atreya [1-2]
Method of procreating excellent progeny
Now we shall explain the method by which the man with unimpaired semen and, the woman with unimpaired ovum and uterus desirous of an excellent progeny can achieve their objective [3]
Read – Herbs Useful For Maintenance Of Pregnancy
Preparatory measures
The couple is treated with oleation and sudation therapies and thereafter the Doshas from their body is eliminated by the administration of Vamana (emesis) and Virechana (Purgation) therapies. Then the patient is brought to normalcy in stage (by administering of prescribed diet).
After the elimination of Doshas, the couple is administered with Asthapana (corrective / decoction / cleansing) and anuvasana (unctuous) types of enema. Man should also be administered ghee and milk boiled with drugs having sweet taste. The woman is given til oil and Masha (Black gram) to eat. [4]
Cohabitation
For three days, right from the day of onset of menstruation, the woman should –
observe celibacy
sleep on the ground
take food from an unbroken vessel kept in her hands and
should never clean her body
On the fourth day
she should use unction
take head-bath and wear white apparel
her husband should also adopt the same regimen
both of them wearing white apparel for each other should enter into cohabitation
if a male child is desired, they should meet on the odd days
During intercourse, the woman should not assume a prone posture (face downwards). She should also not be prone over the man who is supine nor should she be in her sides. If she maintains a prone posture during cohabitation then Vata gets aggravated and afflicts her uterus. This might cause disorders of vagina and uterus.

If she remains in her right-side during intercourse then Kapha which remains in that side gets displaced and blocks the uterus. Left side is the abode of Pitta. If pressure is put on that side during intercourse, then the ovum and the sperm get burnt up. Therefore, the woman should receive seed while lying on her back. In this posture Doshas remain in their respective sites and will also not produce any complication.
After the completion of intercourse, she is sprinkled / given bath with cold water. The below mentioned factors prevents conception or produces a deformed child in a woman during intercourse –
intake of food in excess
fasting
thirst
fear
dejection
grief
anger
desire for another man
excessive desire for intercourse
One should not indulge in intercourse with a woman who is too young or old, who is suffering from a chronic disease or afflicted with any other disease. Similarly, a woman should not indulge in intercourse with a man having the same defects. Therefore, the couple desirous of having healthy progeny should ensure that they are free from all such defects before entering into the sexual act.
The couple having excitement for intercourse should take relishing and wholesome food (not in excess), and arrange for bed which is pleasant, scented, well spread and comfortable, man should ascend this bed with his right leg first and the woman with her left leg first.
Then this Mantra (incantation) is recited. “Oh foetus, you are the serpent God (vibrant like Sun God), you are my life, you are my reputition, and you constitute the support of everything. May the God, the saviour of the world protects you, May the creator protect and maintain you. Be equipped with Brahmavarcas. May Brahma, Brhaspati, Vishnu, Soma, Surya, the Asvins, Bhaga, Mitra and Varuna provide me with a brave male child in this foetus. Having recited this Mantra, they should enter into intercourse. [5-8]
Read – Planning for Baby (Conception) with the Help of Ayurveda
Regimens for a son of excellent qualities
If she desires to have a son with a massive body, white complexioned with the strength like that of a lion, with vigour, purity and strong mind, then from the first day of her purificatory bath (after the menstruation) she is given Mantha (thin gruel) prepared with white barley by boiling it with the milk of a white cow having a white calf and mixing it with ghee and honey in a silver or bronze vessel to drink every morning and evening continuously for one week.
In the morning and also in the evening one should consume rice or food preparations prepared with barley flour mixed with curds, honey, ghee or milk. In the evening sleep on white mattress / bed sheets (bed covered with white cloth) placed in a white-colored house / apartment, and use white-colored drinks (milk, juice, buttermilk etc) and wear white colored apparel and ornaments. In the morning and evening, she should continuously look at a white and corpulent bull, a white horse belonging to an appreciable clan or white sandalwood or she is entertained with pleasing and favourite stories.
The woman should see and be in the company of men and women with good personalities, pleasing words and refined behaviour and actions, and pleasant objects of senses i.e. sounds, touch, objects of vision, tastes and smell. Her friends too should behave in a good and pleasant way with her. The husband of the woman too should conduct himself with a decent behaviour with her. They should also not get intimate physically for seven days. After having adopted the above regimens for seven nights, she along with her husband should take a complete bath including the head and should wear white and unturned apparel as well as white garlands and ornaments. [9]
Read – Conception And Formation Of Fetus As Per Ayurveda
Vedic rites for procreating a child of desire qualities
Then the priest should select a suitable place. The place should have sloping towards the east or the north. This place is smeared with cow dung mixed with water.

There, an altar is erected after sprinkling the water. He (the priest) should thereafter be seated towards the west of the altar.
If he is invited by a Brahmana, he should sit on a cushion prepared of untorn (fresh) clothes or the hide of a white bull.
If he is invited by a Ksatriya he should sit on the hide of a tiger or a bullock.
If invited by a Vaishya he should sit on the hide of an antelope or a he-goat.
The priest should then offer the wood of one of the below mentioned to the fire in the form of oblation –
Palasha (Butea monosperma)
Ingudi (Balanites aegyptica)
Udumbara (Ficus recemosa Linn), or
Madhuka (Madhuka indica)
Then the altar is covered with Kusha (Desmostachya bipinnata), and it is bound by the four big sticks of Palasha. Between the altar and the boundary created around it, parched / puffed rice and white fragrant flowers should be spread out. The priest should take the sacred water pot, purified with sacred Mantras and get the ghee purified for the sake of oblation and then bring the steed etc. The shelter constructed around the altar should be decorated with garlands of white flowers.
As described above all the things should be placed all around the altar.
The woman along with her husband desirous of having a son (child) should sit towards the west of the sacred fire and towards the south of the priest, should perform the sacred rites and should express her desire to have the progeny of excellent quality.
After she has expressed her desire, the priest should respectfully remember Prajapati and with a view to fulfilling the desired progeny in her womb, should offer Kamya type of oblation (to the fire), reciting the Mantra (may Lord Vishnu fulfil her desire in the womb)- Rgveda – 10: 148:8.
[May lord Vishnu prepares the womb; May Lord Tvastr makes the respective forms; may Lord Prajapati spray the sperm: May Lord Dhatr protects your (wife’s) womb]. Immediately thereafter the priest should prepared the Sthali Paka (caru i.e. rice cooked with ghee) and offer it three times as oblation to the fire as prescribed in the Vedas.
Read – Ghee Benefits, Usage, Side Effects, Contra Indications

He should then hand over the water vessel impregnated with Mantras to her and say “You should use this for all purpose for which water is required”. On completion of these sacred rites, she should take a round of the sacred fire along with her husband with her right step preceding the other one. Then other Brahmanas assembled there should recite auspicious hymns. Thereafter the husband should consume the remaining portion of ghee used for sacrifice (fire sacrifice ritual) enchanted by auspicious hymns by the Brahmanas. Later the wife should consume the same ghee (other portion). The entire ghee should be consumed by the couple without leaving out even a small quantity (should not be wasted). Thereafter they should have intercourse for eight nights. They should continue to use the same type of apparel in order to procreate a son of desired qualities.
A woman who desires to have a son of bluish complexion, red eyes, elevated chest and long arms or who desires to have a son of black complexion having black, soft and long hair, white eyes, white teeth, brilliance and self control should perform the same scared rite as mentioned above.
But the variation will be only with regard to the colour of the apparel used. The woman desirous of having a child bearing particular body color should also wear apparel of the same colour.
A woman of shudra caste should live in a house, wear clothes, ornaments and garlands, use seating, bedding, foods and drinks having forms and colors which she would desire to have it in her child. She should offer only obeisance to the Gods, fire, Brahmanas, preceptors, ascetics and Siddhas (those who have attained perfection).
The woman is asked to visit a country or region of her choice in her mind depending on which ‘country-man’ would she wishes her son to resemble. She should also be asked to adopt the food, regimen, manners and apparel of the people of those countries whom she wishes her son to resemble.
Thus the regimens to be followed by a woman desirous of having a son of her choice have been explained. [10-14]
Read – Mantra Therapy For Prevention Of Abortion – Varana Bandha
Other factors responsible for the complexion of progeny
It is not that only the above-mentioned factors are responsible for begetting a child of a specific colour. Even the Agni mahabhuta when associated with Jala and Akasha Mahabhutas also produce white complexion.
Agni associated with Prthvi and Vayu produces black complexion and with all the Mahabhutas in equal proportion, it produces blue complexion. [15]
Read – Panchamahabhuta: Application, Areas of Utility in Ayurveda treatment
Mental faculty of the progeny
The following factors determine the state of the mental faculty of the child:
The mental faculty of parents
The sounds, words and conversations (music etc) heard repeatedly by the pregnant woman;
Actions performed by the embryo in his previous life and
Frequent practice and indulgence in a particular type of mental faculty by the progeny in his previous life (being used to the qualities of sattva, raja or tama mind faculties in the previous birth will be carried by the mind into its consecutive births) [16]
Read – Sub Types Of Personality Features Based On Satva, Rajas, Tamas
Importance of purification of body of the couple
When a man and woman copulate after purifying their bodies according to the methods prescribed above, the unimpaired sperm unites with the unimpaired ovum in the unimpaired womb lying within an unimpaired genital tract. Then this definitely results in the formation of an embryo.
Just like a spotless clean cloth becomes colored on coming in contact with coloring substance, just like the milk abandons its original form and gets converted into curds when it comes in contact with few drops of curd, the sperm on coming in contact with ovum (and getting associated with it) forms the embryo. [17]
Sexual characteristics of Progeny
Factors responsible for bringing about masculine or feminine characteristics in the embryo have already been described. An unimpaired seed sown (in a fertile land) germinates bearing its own characteristic features, e.g paddy from paddy seed and barley from barley seed. So the male and female characteristics of the embryo are determined by those of the parents. (c f Sarira , 2:12). [18]
Pumsavana
The procedure prescribed in the Vedas (Ayurveda) to be properly adopted to change the sex of the foetus before its manifestation is now being described.
These methods, if adopted, in association with the excellence of locality and time produce the desired effects invariably. If there is any variation in these, the results would become otherwise. Therefore, the pregnant woman is administered Pumsavana therapy (to beget a male child) before the manifestation of the sex of the foetus.
These recipes are given below:
During the conjunction of Pusya star (with moon), two fresh and intact buds from the branches of a Banyan tree grown in eastern or northern side, in a cow-shed, along with 2 grains of Masha i.e. black gram or white variety of mustard seeds should be ground in curds. This should be given for drinking to the pregnant woman.
Similarly milk boiled with the paste of Jivaka, Rsabhaka, Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera) and Sahacara (Barleria cristala Linn) – all of them together or any one, two or three of them together as per requirement is given to the pregnant woman for the desired effect.
During Pusya conjunction, she should drink an Anjali (a handful of) of water added with Kudyakitaka (a type of small insect) or Matsyaka (a type of small fish).
During Pusya conjunction, she is made to drink without any remnant, an Anjali (a handful of) of curd, milk or water in which a small and dazzling (fire coloured) statue of a man prepared of gold, silver or iron made red hot on fire is dipped in.
During Pusya conjunction, she should inhale the steam coming out of the water boiled by adding flour of Shali rice. To this processed flour (shali rice paste formed after its cooking), water is added again. A cotton swab is dipped in this fluid. Later she should sleep resting her head on the threshold with head low position. She should take the cotton swab dipped in rice flour water and squeeze it into her right nostril such that the drops enter the right part of the nose.
In addition to the above, other therapies as prescribed by Brahmanas and saintly ladies for Pumsavana (to beget a male child) are adopted.
Thus ends the Pumsavana rites. [9]
Read – Qualities Of Water, Drinks and Foods Stored In Different Vessels
Measures for maintenance of pregnancy
Hereafter we shall describe the measures which help in the measure which help in the maintenance of pregnancy.
Aindri (Citrulus colocynthis)
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri)
Satavirya (Cynodon doctylon)
Sahasravirya (a variety of Durva)
Amongha or patala (Stereospermum suaveolens DC)
Avyatha or Guduci (Tinspora cordifolia)
Siva (Terminalia chebula Linn)
Arista (Picrorhiza kurroa)
Vatyapuspi or yellow variety of Bala (Sida cordifolia Linn)
Visvaksenakanta or Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl)
All these medicines are worn (tied to) in the head or right hand of the pregnant woman and milk or ghee boiled with these drugs is taken (oral consumption) by her. She should take bath in water boiled with these drugs during Pusya conjunction. She should also touch these drugs.
In the above manner all drugs included under Jivaniya group- vide Sutra, 4:8 should always be used by her. Thus measures which help in the maintenance of pregnancy are described. [20]
Read – Jeevaneeya Gana Herbs of Charaka: Review, Medicines, Benefits
Factors injurious to pregnancy
The following factors cause impairment on pregnancy:
seating which are uncomfortable, irregular and high
forcibly withholding the urges of flatus, urination and defecation
getting indulged in difficult exercises which doesn’t suit one’s capacity
consumption of foods hot and sharp in nature
consumption of foods in excessive or less quantity
taking foods rich only in one or two tastes
The above mentioned factors lead either to the death of the foetus inside the uterus, premature birth, abortion or cachexia of the foetus.
Other factors which leads to miscarriage or abortion –
injury
frequent pressure
frequently looking inside abysses, deep wells and place of water fall
travelling in the vehicles which are excessively uncomfortable (jerky)
hearing of unbearable sounds in excess
Other harmful factors and their effects
Defects in the offspring caused by the vitiation of the sperm of the father are to be described on the same line as those of the mother. Thus the factors responsible for the impairment of the pregnancy are described.
Thus the parents, especially the mother, desirous of an offspring endowed with excellent quantities should refrain from unwholesome diet and regimens. They should perform virtuous acts resort to diets and regimens which are beneficial. [21]
Read – Factors That Harm Fetus, Avoidable Food And Habits In Pregnancy
Line of treatment of a pregnant woman
A physician should treat her aliments by means of drugs, diet and other regimens which are mostly soft, sweet, cold, pleasant and tender. She should not be administered emesis; purgation, head-purging errhines (nasal medication) and bloodletting therapies. Unless the disease is exceedingly serious, she should never be administered asthapana (corrective type of enema) and anuvasana (oleating type of enema). Emesis etc. may however, be given to the pregnant woman after the eight months of pregnancy, if there is any serious emergency. But these therapies or any such other therapies having similar action should be of very mild nature. Any such therapies here means gargle, mouth wash or expectorant therapies should be done instead of emesis, suppositories should be administered instead of purgation therapy oil pooling therapy over the head should be done instead of errhines. A pregnant woman is to be treated very cautiously as if one is walking with a pot full of oil, in hand without letting a drop to fall. [22]
Abortion
If there is a flow of menstruation during the second or third month of pregnancy due to the unwholesome regimens, then one should conclude that the pregnancy will not be stable because during this period, the embryo lacks maturity. [23]
Miscarriage and its management
If there is bleeding from the genital tract during the fourth month of pregnancy or thereafter due to excess of anger, grief, envy, jealousy, fear, terror, cohabitation, exercise, jerk, suppression of the manifested urges, improper food, wrong posture, hunger, thirst and intake of unwholesome food then following procedure is adopted for the maintenance of pregnancy:
Immediately after the manifestation of bleeding she is advised to lie down in head-low and elevated leg position on the bed covered with a soft, soothing, comfortable and cooling bed-sheet.
Thereafter, a cotton swab dipped in ghee mixed with the powder of licorice which are kept inside excessively cold water is placed over the vagina.
Her entire body below the navel is smeared with Satadhauta-Ghrta (ghee washed for one hundred times) and Sahasradhauta Grtha (ghee washed for one thousand times).
Her entire body below the navel is sprinkled with excessively cold cow- milk, decoction of licorice and the decoction prepared of Nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis Linn) etc.
She is bathed with cold water.
Cotton swabs dipped in the juice of Ksiri vrkshas (trees bearing milk / latex yielding trees) and trees having astringent taste are kept inside her vagina.
Cotton swabs dipped in the milk or ghee boiled with the sunga (bud) of Nyarodha etc. may also be kept inside the vagina.
She may be given the milk or ghee boiled with the bud or Nyagrodha to be taken in the dose of an Aksa (12ml)
She may be given milk or ghee alone.
Pollens of Padma (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn), Utpala (Nymphea alba Linn) and Kumuda (a variety of Utpala) along with honey and sugar may be given to her as linctus.
She should eat Srngataka (Trapa bispinosa Roxb), seeds of Puskara (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) and Kaseruka (Scripus grossus Linn f)
She may be given milk boiled with Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl), blue variety of Utpala (Nympheaea alba Linn) and buds of Nyagrodha (Ficus benghalensis Linn) to drink.
She is given to eat soft, fragrant and cold rice of red variety of Shali (Oryza Sativa Linn) along with honey and sugar mixed with the milk boiled with Bala (sida cordifolia Linn), Atibala (a variety of Bala), roots of Shali, swastika (a variety ofShali) and iksu (Saccharum Officinarum Linn) and Kakoli.
She should reside in a comfortable place having cold breeze and take the rice prepared of red variety ofc along with the meat soup of animals, viz Lava (common quail), Kapinjala (Gray bar), Sasa (Rabbit), Harina (black buck), ena (Antelope) and Kalapucchaka (Black tailed deer) well seasoned with ghee.
She should refrain from anger, sorrow, exertion, sexual intercourse and exercise.
She is entertained with talks which are gentle and gives pleasure to her mind. The above measures help in maintaining pregnancy. [24]
Miscarriage caused by Sama
If bleeding appears because of the factors which are simultaneously responsible for the formation of Ama, this mostly leads to abortion because both of them (correction of bleeding and Ama formation) require mutually contradictory treatment. [25]
Read – Bleeding During Pregnancy: Causes, Ayurvedic Treatment
Upavistaka and Nagodara
Upavishtaka – Bleeding or any other form of uterine secretion may occur because of the intake of hot and sharp things by a pregnant woman in whom the vital elements of the foetus have been formed and the shape and form of the foetus too are in matured state.
Evidently this amounts to the loss of vital elements from its body through exudation, resulting in inhibition to the growth of foetus. Such a foetus remains inside the womb for a very long time. This condition is known by some experts as Upavistaka (prolonged gestation).
If the pregnant women resorts to fasting and observance of religious rites, if there is malnutrition, if she has aversion to the intake of fats and if she resorts to such factors which might cause aggravation of vata, the foetus dries up and does not grow. Such a foetus remains in the womb of the mother for a very long period and there is no quacking of the foetus. This condition is known as Nagodara (elephantine Gestation). [26]
Read – Upavishtaka, Upashushka Garbha – Meaning, Symptoms, Treatment
Management of Upavistaka etc
We shall now explain the specific treatment for both the above-mentioned condition of the pregnant woman.
She should use eggs, and ghee or milk boiled with Bhautika (drugs which are antagonistic to evil spirits and germs like Vaca) Guggulu, Mahapaisacika Ghrta- Vide Cikitsa, 9:45- 48), Jivaniya (vitalizing drugs), Brmhaniya (drugs promoting the corpulence of the body), madhura (drugs having sweet taste) and Vatahara (drugs which alleviate Vata) drugs for the growth of the foetus.
She should take ghee etc. boiled with the above mentioned drugs when there is good appetite.
This is supplemented by the frequent use of a (proper) conveyance for travelling, bath and geniculation. [27]
Treatment of Nagodara
The patient whose foetus being inactive does not quicken, is given soft, sweet and cooling juice of red variety of Shali (oryza Sativa Linn) along with the
meat soup of either of the animals and birds like falcon, fish, gayal cow, peacock, cock, and partridge mixed with ghee or with soup prepared of masha or radish mixed with ghee in large quantity. Her abdomen, lower abdomen, groin, thighs, waist, sides of chest and back is frequently massaged with luke-warm oil. [28]
Treatment of ailments in eighth month
If she suffers from Udavarta (an acute condition in the abdomen characterized by the retention of feces) along with constipation during the eight month of pregnancy, administration of anuvasana basti (unctuous enema) is considered to be unsuitable because of the association of ama in this condition. In this condition she is given with Niruha Basti (corrective enema). If neglected, Udavarta causes the death of the pregnant woman along with the foetus or of foetus alone.
A decoction is prepared by boiling the roots of Virana (Vetiveria zizoanioides Nash), Shali (Oryza sativa Linn),Sastika (a type of Shali), Kusha (Demostachya bipinnata Staf), Kasha (Saccharum spontaneum Linn), Iksuvalika (Asteracantha longifolia Nees), Vetasa (Shalix caprea Linn), Parivyadha (a type of Vetasa), and Bhutika (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague), Ananta (Hemidesmus indicus R.B), Kashmarya (Gmelina glabra Linn), Parushaka (Grewia asiatica Linn), Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) and Mrdvika (Vitis vinifera Linn), in milk added with water half in quantity. To this decoction, the paste of Priyala (Budhanania Lazan Spreng), pulp inside the seed of Bibhitaka (Terminalia bellerica Roxb) and Tila (Semum indicum Linn) and small quantity of salt is added. This mixture, when slightly warm, is administered as Niruha (corrective enema.).
After the constipation is relieved, her body is washed with water of pleasant temperature and she is given food which promotes stability and does not cause burning sensation. Thereafter, in the evening she is administered anuvasana basti (unctuons) type of enema prepared by boiling oil with the group of sweet drugs. Anuvasana and Niruha types of enema are administered to her while she is in a prone posture. [29]
Read – Ayurvedic Diet And Lifestyle For Pregnant Woman
Signs and foetal death
The foetus may die inside the womb of the woman due to
Excessive accumulation of Doshas
Excessive intake of sharp and hot things
Suppression of the manifested urges of flatus, urine and stool,
Maintenance of irregular posture in sitting, sleeping, standing, compression and injury
Anger, grief, envy, fear, terror etc.and other activities which are beyond her strength and capacity
Symptoms death of foetus inside the womb –
The woman’s abdomen becomes still, rigid, extended, cold and hard as if a there is a stone inside
Absence of quickening of the foetus
Manifestation of excessive pain
No manifestation of labour pain
Absence of any secretion from the genital tract
Sunken eyes
Fainting
Agonizing pain
Giddiness
Severe breathlessness
Restlessness / excessive disliking for everything and
Improper manifestation of natural urges
With these symptoms, the woman is diagnosed as carrying a dead foetus in her womb. [30]
Read – Intrauterine Death Of Fetus In Ayurveda
Management of a woman with dead foetus
To give relief to such a patient having a dead foetus in her womb, the following three methods are prescribed:
Expulsion of the placenta
Recitation of Mantras etc., as prescribed in the Atharva Veda and
Removal of the dead foetus by surgical measure by an experienced surgeon
(The dead foetus inside the womb may either be a mature or an immature one).
If it is immature, after the removal of the dead foetus, she is given in the beginning to drink either of the Sura, Sidhu, Arista, Madhu, and Madira and Asava types of wine, in accordance with her capacity, for the purification of the sense of exhilaration. Thereafter, till the excessive moisture in Doshas and Dhatus are dried up, she is immediately given Yavagu (gruel) etc; which is palatable and strength promoting, without adding any fat into it. Thereafter she is treated with the administration of fats, enema and different types of diet which are Dipaniya (promoters of digestive power), Jivaniya (promoters of Vitality), Brmhaniya (promoters of corpulence), Madhura (sweet in taste in taste), and Vatahara (alleviators of Vata).
For a patient whose foetus has had attained maturity before death, is given fatty things very immediately after the dead foetus is removed. [31]
Read – Anomalies, Defects In Fetus, Ayurvedic Treatment
Regimens for a pregnant woman
Now we shall describe the measures to be adopted month by month for the foetus which grows without any morbidity
First month
If pregnancy is suspected she should take milk in adequate quantity regularly. This milk need not be boiled with anything and is taken when it is cold. She should take wholesome food morning and evening.
Second month
Milk is given boiled with drugs having sweet taste.
Third month
Milk mixed with honey and ghee should be given.
Fourth month
Milk is given along with butter in one Karsa (12g) dose.
Fifth Month
Ghee extracted directly from milk (without subjecting it to fermentation leading to the formation of curd) is given to her.
Sixth month
Ghee taken out directly from milk and boiled with Madhurausadhis (drugs which are sweet in taste) is given.
Seventh month
She is given the same medication prescribed for sixth month.
According to the notion commonly prevalent among women, the mother during this month gets burning sensation (in the chest) because of the growth of hair in the foetus but this is not correct according to Lord Atreya. According to him, three Doshas viz, Vata, Pitta and Kapha get into the chest because of the pressure of the foetus and this causes burning sensation there which leads to itching resulting in the formation of Kikkisa (Linea albicantes or white abdominal lines seen after pregnancy).
For the management of such a condition the following therapies are prescribed.
She is made to drink regularly one Tola (12g) of butter boiled with Madhurausadhi (certain selected drugs having swet taste) along with decoction of Kola (Zjzyphus Jujuba LaM)
Read – Garbhasrava, Garbhapata – Meaning, Causes, Ayurveda Treatment
Her breasts and abdomen is anointed with
the paste of Chandana (Santalum album Linn) and Mrnala (lotus stalk)
Powder of Sirisa (Albizia lebbeck Benth), Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz), Sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch) and Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) or
Paste of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn), Turmeric, or
Paste of Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), Kola (Zizyphus jujuba Lam), surasa (Ocimum sanctum Linn) and Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia Linn) or
Triphala (Terminalia chebula Linn, Terminalia belerica Roxb, and Emblics officinalia Gaertn) mixed with the blood of Prsata (spotted deer) and rabbit
Gentle massage is given with oil boiled with the leaves of Karavira (Nerium indicum Mill).
Water boiled with Malati (Agnosma dicotoma K. Schum) and Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) is used for affusion.
When she feels the itching sensation, she should not scratch the part because it may injure the skin and disfigure it. When the itching is intolerable, it is corrected by kneading and friction massage.
The ingredients of her food are sweet in taste and they alleviate Vata. The food is taken in small quantity without adding fat and salt. Water, in small quantity is used as Anupana (post- prandial drink).
Eight month
During this month, she should regularly take milk and gruel added with ghee. This was not acceptable to Bhadrakapya. According to him this will cause Pingala (tawny) colouration of the eyes of the foetus. Lord Punarvasu Atreya replied, “Even if there is (twenty) coloration of the eyes of the foetus, it is not that this therapy should not be given. By doing this, the mother herself will keep good health and give birth to a child endowed with the excellence of health, strength, complexion, voice and compactness which will make him the best even among the children of the entire clan.
Ninth Month
She is given Anuvasana Basti (unctuous enema) with the oil boiled with Madhurausasadhi (certain selected drugs having sweet taste).
Cotton swabs soaked in this oil are kept in the vagina for the oleation of the uterus and genital tract.
Read – Monthly Development Of Fetus – Ayurvedic perspective
Benefits of monthly management
Adoption of the above-mentioned procedure for the management of the pregnant woman right from the first month up to the ninth month of pregnancy help in the following:
Softening of placenta, pelvis, waist, sides of the chest and back
Downward movement of Vata (flatus)
Normalization of the urine and stool and their elimination with ease;
Softening of her skin and nails
Promotion of strength and complexion and
Delivery with ease of desirable and healthy son (child) endowed with excellent qualities in proper time. [32]
Construction of maternity home
Before the ninth month of her pregnancy, the maternity home is constructed in a place free from bones, gravels and pieces of earthen vessels. The soil of the locality should have excellent colour, taste and smell. Its doors should face towards the east or the north and the wood of Bilva (Aegle marmelos corr), Tinduka (Dispyros perregrina Curke), Ingudi (Balanites aeyptica Delile), Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn), Varana and Khadira (Acacia catechu Wild) is used for the construction of this maternity home.
Such other measures prescribed by the Brahmanas well versed with the Athrava Veda should also be adopted. This house is equipped with cloth, sheet and bed covers, fire place, water storage, place for pounding, lavatory, bath-room and kitchen is provided here as per the instructions laid down in Vastuvidya (Science of House building). It is made air-conditioned to make it comfortable for the particular season. [33]
Read – After Delivery Care Of Mother For First Three Months By Ayurveda
Drugs to be stored in Maternity home
The following drugs are stored in the maternity home:
Ghee
Oil
Honey
Rock-salt
Sonchal salt
Black salt
Vida salt
Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm.f)
Kustha (Saussurea lappa C.B Clarke)
Killima (Cedrus deodara Loud)
Nagara (Zingiber officinale Rose)
Pippali (Piper longum Linn)
Root of Pippali (Piper longum)
Hastipippali (Scindapsus officinalis Schott)
Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica urban)
Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton)
Langali (Gloriosa superba)
Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn)
Cavya (Piper chaba Hunter)
Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn)
Cirabilva (Pongamia pinnata Merr)
Hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss)
Sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch)
Lasuna (Alium sativum Linn)
Kataka (Strychnos potatorum Linn F)
Kana (also kmown as Kundaka
Kanika (having grains thicker than those of Kana)
Nipa (Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich)
Atasi (Linum usitaissimum Linn)
Balvaja
Bhurja (Betula utilis)
Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn)
Maireya, Sura and Asava types of wine
In addition to the above following substances is kept there.
Two grinding stones
Two small pestles
Two mortars
One untamed Bull
Two gold and silver cases for keeping needless
Various surgical instruments which is sharp and prepared of metal
Two bed-steeds made of Bilva (Aegle Marmelos Corr)
Wood of Tinduka (Diopyros peregrina Gurke) and Ingudi (Balanites aeyptica Delile) for fuel
Number of female attendants who are multiparas, affectionate, constantly attached to love, free, from grief, tolerant of hardship and agreeable,
Brahmins well versed in the Atharva Veda.
Besides the above, whatever is found necessary and advised by the Brahmins and told ladies should also be kept there. [34]
Read – Postpartum Afterpains – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment
Admission into maternity home
At the onset of ninth month of pregnancy, on an auspicious day having the propitious moon in conjunction with a favourable constellation and during a propitious Karana (an astrological term indicating a division of the day) and Muhurta (an approximate time) oblation should be offered to the sacred fire for peace. Cows, Brahmanas, fire and water is brought to the maternity home in the first instance. Cows are given grass, water and fried paddy added with honey and the Brahmanas are given Aksata (unbroken grains of rice), flowers, and fruits like Kharjura (Dates / Phoenix sylvestris Roxb) which are indicative of good fortune.
The woman should take water and then, after prayers to the respected ones, seated properly. Thereafter she should perform Acamana (taking water in a manner prescribed for auspicious occasions) again and therefore others should recite auspicious Mantras. Then Punyaha (Lit auspicious day) Mantra is recited. Keeping the cow and the Brahmanas in right side, she should enter into the maternity home. There, she should wait for the time of delivery. [35]
Signs of impending delivery
The following signs indicate the approach of the time of delivery.
Exhaustion of the limbs
Feeling of depression in the face
Looseness in eyes
Feeling in the chest as if a knot is being untied
Feeling as if something is coming down from the pelvis
Heaviness in the lower part of the body
Pain in groin, region of baldder, pelvis, sides of the chest and back
Onset of show from the gential tract and
Loss of appetite
Thereafter true labour pain associated with the excretion of amniotic fluid starts. [36]
Management after onset of labour pain
When the labour pain starts, a bed is prepared on the ground with soft material used as bed spread and she should be asked to sit over it. Female attendants having the above mentioned qualities should thereafter remain all around her and console her with talks which are comforting and consoling to her. [37]
Read – Signs And Symptoms In Different Stages Of Labor As Per Ayurveda
Management in case of delay in delivery
Some are of the view that if the delivery does not take place in spite of severe labour pain, the pregnant woman is instructed to get up and take up one of pounding clubs (Pestles). With the help of this club she should frequently strike the container / mortar filled up with corns. Simultaneously she should frequently resort to pendicilation and while doing so, according to them, she is asked to resort to circumambulation at intervals.
This proposition is not acceptable to Lord Atreya because pregnant women are invariably advised to avoid violent exercises, specially during the time of delivery, in the delicate body of the woman, all the Doshas and Dhatus are in a state of instability and if she resorts to exercise with the help of a club, Vayu gets aggravated, and finding an opportunity, it may destroy the life. Such a condition of a pregnant woman is too difficult to cure. Therefore, Rshis (sages) are of the view that pregnant woman should not resort to exercise with a club. Pendiculation and circumambulation can however be resorted to.
For inhalation she is given the powder of Kustha (Sausserea lappa C.B Clarke), ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton), Langalika (Gloriosa superb Linn), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn), Cirabilva (Pongamia pinnata Mirr) and Chavya (Pipper chaba Hunter). She should inhale this powder frequently. Back of Bhuraj (Betula utilis D. Don) and the pith of Simshapa (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb) may be used for fumigation.
At intervals she is anointed with warm oil on her waist, sides of the chest, back and thighs and they are gently massaged. By doing this the foetus is brought downwards. [38]
Read – Untimely and Delayed Labor As Per Ayurveda (Garbha Sangha – Akala Prasava)
Recitation of mantra
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sa yada janiyadvimucya hdayamudaramasyastvavi’sati,
basti’siro’vaghati, tvarayantyenamavya, parivartate’dho garbha iti;
asyamavasthaya paryakamenamaropya pravahayitumupakrameta|
kare casya mantramimamanukula stri japet-
‘kitirjala viyattejo vayurviu prajapati|
sagarbha tva sada pantu vai’salya ca di’santu te|
prasuva tvamavikliamaviklia ‘subhanane!|
kartikeyadyuti putra kartikeyabhirakitam’ iti||39||
When a pregnant woman feels as if the foetus got separated from her heart and entered into the lower abdomen and had approached the area of Basti sira (brim of the pelvis), when the frequency of labour pain has increased and the foetus has turned and is coming downwards, the physician should at this stage, make her lie down over a bed-stead (specially prepared for the purpose). She should then be asked strain so as to facilitate delivery. A woman favourably disposed to her should recite the following Mantra near her ears:
“(May the Prthvi, Akasha,Agni, Vayu, Vishnu and Prajapati protect you the pregnant one all times and facilitate the delivery of the child. O! Auspicious one, may the delivery take place without any distresses either to you or to your son, who be endowed with brilliance of Lord Kartikeya and also be protected by him)”. [39]
Duties of attendants

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ta’scaina yathoktagua striyo’nu’siyu-
anagatavirma pravahiha; ya hyanagatavi
pravahate vyarthamevasyastat karma bhavati,
praja casya vikta viktimapanna ca,
‘svasakasa’soaplihaprasakta va bhavati|
yatha hi kavathudgaravatamutrapuriavegan
prayatamano’pyapraptakalanna labhate kcchrea va’pyavapnoti,
tatha’nagatakala garbhamapi pravahamaa;
yatha caiameva kavathvadina sandharaamupaghatayopapadyate,
tatha praptakalasya garbhasyapravahaamiti|
sa yathanirde’sa kuruveti vaktavya syat|
tatha ca kurvati ‘sanai purva pravaheta, tato’nantara balavattaram|
tasya ca pravahamaaya striya ‘sabda kuryu-
‘prajata prajata dhanya dhanya putram’ iti|
tatha’sya hareapyayyante praa||40||
Ladies having the above mentioned (vide para-34) qualities should instruct her as follows:
“Do not strain in the absence of labour pain.” Straining in the absence of labour pain does not serve any useful purpose. It rather causes morbidity and deformity in the foetus and produces diseases like Svasa (breathlessness), Kasa (cough), Sosa (consumption) and Pliha (enlargement of Spleen). As in the absence of natural urges, sneezing, eructation, passage of flatus, urination and defecation do not occur, if at all they occur, they do so with considerable difficulty and artificial efforts. Similarly, premature straining in the absence of natural (normal) labour pain does not produce the desired result. As the suppression of manifested urges of sneezing etc. leads to disastrous effects, so does the absence of straining while there is labour pain. She is asked to obey the instructions. While doing so, she should put strain slowly in the beginning and gradually increase the pressure, while she puts strain, female attendants should say aloud, “thanks, you have delivered a son”. This gives her relief and joy, and adds to her regaining the vitality. {40}
Read – Management Of Labor In Ayurveda – Prasava Paricharya
Removal of Placenta
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yada ca prajata syattadaivainamaveketa- kacidasya apara prapanna na veti|
tasya’scedapara na prapanna syadathainamanyatama stri dakiena paina nabherupariadbalavannipiya savyena paina phata upasaghya ta sunirdhuta nirdhunuyat|
athasya parya ‘sroimakoayet|
asya sphicavupasaghya supiita piayet|
athasya balaveya kahatalu parim’set|
bhurjapatrakacamaisarpanirmokai’scasya yoni dhupayet|
kuhatalisakalka balvajayue maireyasuramae tike kaulatthe
va yue maukaparipippalisampake va samplavya payayedenam|
tatha sukmailakilimakuhanagara viagapippalikalagurucavyacitrakopaku~ncikakalka
kharavabhasya va jivato dakia karamutktya dadi jarjariktya
balvajakvathadinamaplavananamanyatame prakipyaplavya muhurtasthitamuddhtya tadaplavana payayedenam|
‘satapupakuhamadanahigusiddhasya caina tailasya picu grahayet|
ata’scaivanuvasayet|
etaireva caplavanai phalajimutekvakudhamargavakuajaktavedhanahastipippalyupahitairasthapayet|
tadasthapanamasya saha vatamutrapuriairnirharatyaparamasakta vayorevapratilomagatvat |
apara hi vatamutrapuriayanyani cantarbahirmargai sajjanti||41||
Immediately after delivery, she is examined for the placenta and it is confirmed if placenta has come out or not. If the placenta does not come out, the following measures are adopted:
One of the female attendants should forcefully press her (patient’s) abdomen (downwards) with her right hand from above the umbilical region while holding her (patient’s) back by her left hand and then shake the body of the patient well.
The attendant with her heels should press the hip region of patient.
The attendant should strongly press her butts with her hands.
Her throat is rubbed with the help of the braid of her hair.
Her vagina is fumigated by burning the bark of Bhurja (Betula utilis D. Don), Kacamani (Quartz) and slough of snake.
She is made to drink the paste of Kustha (Saussurea lappa C.B Clarke) and Talisa (Ablies webliana Lindl) mixed with either of the following:
– Decoction of Balvaja the scum of maireya or sura types of wine having an acute effect
– The decoction of Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Liinn)
– Decoction of Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Urban) and Pippali (Piper longum Linn)
A portion of the right ear of the untamed and alive bull is cut and smashed in a stone mortar, and this is added with the paste of Suksmaila (Elettaria cardamomum Moton), Kilima (Cedrus deodara Loud), Kustha (Saussurea lappa C. B Clarke), Nagara (Zingiber officinale Rosc), and Vidanga (Embelia ribes burnm f.),Pippali (Piper loungum Linn),Kalaguru (black variety of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb), Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn) and Upakunchika (Nigella sativa Linn). The paste should then be soaked in the decoction of Balvaja etc, described above and kept for some time. Then the paste is taken out and the liquid which has thus remained is given to her to drink.
The cotton swab soaked in oil boiled with Satapuspa (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), Kustha (Saussurea lappa. C.B Clarke), Madana (Randia dumetorum Lam) and Hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss) is kept in her genital tract. With this oil she is given Anuvasana Basti (unctuous enema).
The decoction of Balvaja is mixed with the paste of Phala (Randia Dumetorum Lam), Jimuta (Luffa Echinata Roxb), Iksvaku (Legearia siceraria Standl), Dhamargava (Luffa cylindria M. Roem), Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysentercia wall), Krtavedhana (Luffa acutangula Roxb), and Hastipippali (Scindapsus officinalis Schoot) and used for Asthapana (corrective) type of enema. By this Asthapana, there will be downward movement of Vayu (in the abdomen) as a result of which along with flatus, urine and stool, the placenta also comes out. Flatus, urine and stool, and such other excreta as having a tendency to come out of the body during normal course of events may get obstructed inside the abdomen resulting in the obstruction of the placenta from coming out. [41]
Read – Manual Expulsion Of Placenta – Ayurvedic Methods: Apara Patana
Management of new- born baby

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tasyastu khalvaparaya prapatanarthe karmai kriyamae jatamatrasyaiva
kumarasya karyayetani karmai bhavanti; tadyatha- a’smano
saghaana karayormule, ‘sitodakenoodakena va mukhaparieka,
tatha sa kle’savihatan praan punarlabheta|
kakapalika’surpea cainamabhinipuiyuryadyacea
syad yavat praana pratyagamanam (tattat sarvameva karyam)|
tata pratyagatapraa praktibhutamabhisamikya snanodakagrahaabhyamupapadayet||
athasya talvohakahajihvapramarjanamarabhetagulya
suparilikhitanakhaya suprakalitopadhanakarpasasapicumatya|
prathama pramarjitasyasya casya ‘sirastalu karpasapicuna snehagarbhea pratisa~nchadayet|
tato’syanantara saindhavopahitena sarpia karya pracchardanam||43||
While taking steps to bring out the placenta, the following measures are taken for the resuscitation of the foetus immediately after birth:
Stinking of stones near the ears of the child
Sprinkling with cold water (during summer) and warm water (during winter) on the face
By the above mentioned measures, the child will gain vitality. The child had lost this vitality as a result of the strain caused by the pressure of the genital tract during the process of its delivery. If after this, there is no movement, then the child should be fanned with the help of black earthen plates until the child starts breathing. For this to happen, all the above mentioned measures are required to be taken. When the respiration is established and the child attains normally, his excretory passages are cleaned with water and he is given bath.
Thereafter his palate, lips, throat and tongue are wiped with attendant’s finger from whih the nails are properly clipped of and which are well-cleansed and covered with cotton swabs. After cleaning his mouth, the Sirastalu (Anterior fontanelle in the head) of the child is covered with cotton swabs soaked with unctuous substances. Thereafter, the child is given to eat ghee mixed rock-salt for emesis. [42-23]
Separation of Umblical cord
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tata kalpana naya|
atastasya kalpanavidhimupadekyama-
nabhibandhanat prabhtyaagulamabhij~nana ktva
chedanavaka’sasya dvayorantarayo ‘sanairghitva
tikena raukmarajatayasana chedananamanyatamenardhadharea chedayet|
tamagre sutreopanibadhya kahe’sya ‘sithilamavasjet|
tasya cennabhi pacyeta,
ta lodhramadhukapriyagusuradaruharidrakalkasiddhena tailenabhyajyat,
eameva tailauadhana curenavacurayet|
iti naikalpanavidhirukta samyak||44||
Thereafter the cord is separated (by cutting and ligature). Now the method of separating the cord is being described. The cord is marked at a Distance of eight Angulas (approximately 25.5 cm) from its root where it is attached with the navel. Both the sides of the help of an ardhadhara type of instrument (having very sharp edge), made of gold, silver or steel, the cord is carefully tied with the help of a thread and the ends of the thread is loosely tied to the neck of the foetus.
If there is suppuration of the umbilical cord, the oil boiled with the paste of Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb), Madhuka, Suradaru (Cedrus deodara Loud) and Haridra (Curucma longa Linn) is applied. These very medicines which are prescribed to be used for the preparation of oil is made into powder and sprinkled over the suppurated umbilicus.
Thus the proper method of the separation of umbilical cord is discussed. [44]
Defective separation of the cord
Improper separation of the cord may cause the following morbidity due to the increase in length and breadth of the cord:
Ayamottundiata (elevation of the umbilicus length wise)
Vyayamottundiata (elevation of a circular ring around the breadth)
Pindalika (formation of a circular ring around the umbilicus)
Vinamika (elevation of the umbilicus in the periphery and depression in the center) and
Vijrmbhika (constant increase in the size of the umbilicus)
Carefully observing the seriousness or mildness of the afflicted Doshas, these conditions are treated by massage, unction and sprinkling of ghee prepared of drugs which are not irritative but alleviators of Vata and Pitta. [45]
Read – Nabhi Chikitsa: Navel treatment, Types, Method, Benefits
Birth- rites
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ato’nantara jatakarma kumarasya karyam|
tadyatha- madhusarpii mantropamantrite yathamnaya prathama pra’situ dadyat|
stanamata urdhvametenaiva vidhina dakia patu purastat prayacchet|
athata ‘sirata sthapayedudakumbha mantropamantritam||46||
Thereafter the birth rites of the foetus as prescribed in the Vedas are performed, which are as follows:
First of all, the child is given honey and ghee impregnated with Mantra prescribed for this purpose in the Vedas
Thereafter, following the same procedure, milk from the right breast is given to the child at first.
An earthen jar filled with water is impregnated with Mantras and kept near the head of the child. [46]
Protection of new-born
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athasya raka vidadhyat- adanikhadirakarkandhupiluparuaka’sakhabhirasya gha samantata parivarayet|
sarvata’sca sutikagarasya sarapatasitaulakaakaika prakireyu|
tatha taulabalihoma satatamubhayakala kriyetanamakarmaa|
dvare ca musala dehalimanu tira’scina nyaset|
vacakuhakaumakahigusarapatasila’sunakaakaikana rakoghnasamakhyatana
cauadhina poalika baddhva sutikagarasyottaradehalyamavasjet,
tatha sutikaya kahe saputraya, sthalyudakakumbhaparyakevapi, tathaiva ca dvayordvarapakayo|
kaakakaakendhanavanagnistindukakahendhana’scagni sutikagarasyabhyantarato nitya syat|
striya’scaina yathoktagua suhda’scanu’scanujagyurda’saha dvada’saha va|
anuparatapradanamagala’sistutigitavaditramannapanavi’sadamanuraktaprahajanasampura ca tadve’sma karyam|
brahmaa’scatharvavedavit satatamubhayakala ‘santi juhuyat svastyayanartha kumarasya tatha sutikaya|
ityetadrakavidhanamuktam||47||
Thereafter measures are taken for the protection of the child.
Branches of Adani, khadira (Acacia catechu Willd), Karkandhu (Zyzyphus nummularia W.A), Pilu (Salvadora persica Linn) and Parusaka (Grewia asiatica Linn) are placed all around the maternity home. Grains of mustard, Atasi (Linum ustitatissimum Linn), and broken rice is strewn in all places of the maternity home.

Till the name giving ceremony (which occurs on the 10th day after birth), Tandulabali homa (a type of Yajna in which rice is offered to the sacred fire) should be constantly performed both the times during the day. At the gate, a pestle is placed parallel to the threshold. Broken pieces of Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn), Kustha (Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke), and Ksaumaka Hingu (Ferula Narthex Boiss), Sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch) Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn) and Lasuna (Allium sativum Linn) and such other drugs which are known to provide protection from the attacks of evil sprits (like Guggulu or Commiphora mukul Engl) is tied in a packet and hanged to the upper beam of the threshold of the maternity home.

Similar packets are made to hang in the neck of the mother and the child. They are kept in cooking vessels, water jars, cot and doors of both the sides. Inside the maternity home, fire from the fuel of the thorn of Kanaka and wood of Tinduka (Diospyros peregrine Guurke) are constantly kept burning.
Female attendants having the attributes described in para 34 and friends of the lady should keep constant vigil by remaining awake for 10 or 12 days. The whole house is kept crowded with people who are pious, affectionate and happy, and engaged constantly in gifts, propitious blessings, praise, song, music, food and drinks. To bestow auspiciousness upon the mother and the child, Brahmans well versed with the Atharvaveda should constantly offer sacrifices in the scared fire during both the times of the day.
Thus measures to be adopted for the protection of the mother and the child are described. [47]
Management of mother after delivery

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sutika tu khalu bubhukita viditva sneha payayeta
paramaya ‘saktya sarpistaila vasa majjana va
satmyibhavamabhisamikya pippalipippalimulacavyacitraka’sgaveracurasahitam|
sneha pitavatya’sca sarpistailabhyamabhyajya veayedudara mahata’cchena vasasa;
tatha tasya na vayurudare viktimutpadayatyanavaka’satvat|
jire tu snehe pippalyadibhireva siddha yavagu susnigdha drava matra’sa payayet|
ubhayatakala coodakena ca pariecayet prak snehayavagupanabhyam|
eva pa~ncaratra saptaratra va’nupalya krameapyayayet|
svasthavttametavat sutikaya||48||
Ghee, oil, Vasa (muscle fat) and Majja (bone-marrow), whichever is found suitable, is given along with the powder of Pippali (Piper longum Linn), root of Pippali, Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn) and Srngavera (Zingiber officinale Rose) to the mother after she feels hungry.
The quantity of it is in conformity with the strength of the mother. After the intake of fat, her abdomen is anointed with ghee and oil, and wrapped round tightly with a long and clean cloth. By doing so, Vayu does not cause any morbidity in her abdomen because of the absence of any empty space therein.
After the unctuous potion is digested, gruel prepared by boiling with Pippali etc. is given in proper quantity. This gruel is in liquid form and added with unctuous substances. Before the administration of unctuous substances and gruel, she is maintained like this for five to seven nights and then gradually nourished.
These are the measures for the maintenance of positive health of the mother who has recently delivered [48]
Read – Ayurvedic Post Natal Care – The First Week After Delivery
Line of treatment of her ailments

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tasyastu khalu yo vyadhirutpadyate sa
kcchrasadhyo bhavatyasadhyo va,
garbhavddhikayita’sithilasarvadhatutvat,
pravahaavedanakledanaraktanisrutivi’sea’sunya’sariratvacca;
tasmatta yathoktena vidhinopacaret;
bhautikajivaniyabhaiyamadhuravataharasiddhairabhyagotsadanapariekavagahanannapanavidhibhirvi’seata’scopacaret;
vi’seato hi ‘sunya’sarira striya prajata bhavanti||49||
If she is afflicted with any disease in these situations, the condition becomes either difficult to cure or incurable because all the tissue elements of her body are diminished in quantity.
This is because the nutrition of the mother is utilized mostly for the growth of the foetus. Further her body is afflicted with emptiness because of the strain involved in labour pain and the loss of blood. This is treated according to the procedure already laid down. She is specifically treated by massage, sprinkling, bath, food, drink prepared with drugs which are Bhautika (alleviators of the effects of evil spirits and germs), Jivaniya (promoter of Vitality), Brmhaniya (promoter of corpulence), sweet in taste and Vatahara (alleviators of Vata) because the body of the woman specifically becomes empty after delivery. [49]
Read – Ayurvedic Post Natal Mother Care Based On Season And Place
Rites for naming the child

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da’same tvahani saputra stri sarvagandhauadhairgaurasarapalodhrai’sca
snata laghvahata’sucivastra paridhaya pavitrealaghuvicitrabhuaavati
ca sasp’sya magalanyucitamarcayitva ca devata ‘sikhina
‘suklavasaso’vyaga’sca brahmaan svasti vacayitva kumaramahatana
ca vasasa sa~ncaye prak’sirasamudak’sirasa va save’sya devatapurva
dvijatibhya praamatityuktva kumarasya pita dve
namani karayennakatrika namabhiprayika ca|
tatrabhiprayika ghoavadadyantasthantamumanta va’vddha
tripuruanukamanavapratihita, nakatrika tu nakatradevatasamanakhya dvyakara caturakara va||50||
On the tenth day, the mother along with her son is bathed in water boiled with all fragrant drugs, white mustard seeds and Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb). Then she should wear light, untorn, and clean apparel and ornaments which are clean, describle, light and variegated. Thereafter, she should touch auspicious things and offer prayer to appropriate diety and fire, and take blessings from Brahmanas who are dressed with white apparel and who have no deformity of organs.
The child is kept over a bed of untorn new cloths with his head towards the east or the north. Then the father should say that the child is offering prayer to the deity and Brahmanas, and then give two names – one Naksatrika (based upon the constellation in which the child was born) and the other Abhiprayika (the name by which he would be called or known in the family or society). The second category of name should begin with a letter of Ghosa character (e.g G , Gh, J, Jh, D, dh, d, dh and b, bh- according to Cakrapani only voiced aspirated stops) and end with letters of Antyastha character (viz, ya, ra, la, and va) or Usma character (viz, sa, sa, sa and Ha). There should not be letters of vrddhi category (diphthongs) in this type of name and it is in conformity with the pattern of naming a child representing three generations (father, grand father and great grandfather). The name should also be a famous one.
The Naksatrika type of name should have similarity with that of the God who is ascribed to the constellation in which the child is born. It is composed of either two or four letters. [50]
Read – Naming Ceremony Of The Child Namakarana Samskara
Examination of the child to ascertain his span of life
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vtte ca namakarmai kumara parikitumupakrametayua pramaaj~nanaheto|
tatremanyayumata kumaraa lakaani bhavanti|
tadyatha- ekaikaja mdavo’lpa snigdha subaddhamula
ka ke’sa pra’sasyante, sthira bahala tvak,
praktya’tisampannamiatpramaativttamanurupamatapatropama ‘sira, vyuha dha sama su’slia’sakhasandhyurdhvavya~njanasampannamupacita valibhamardhacandrakti lalaa,
bahalau vipulasamapihau samau nicairvddhau phato’vanatau su’sliakaraputrakau
mahacchidrau karau, iatpralambinyavasagate same sahate mahatyau bhruvau,
same samahitadar’sane vyaktabhagavibhage balavati tejasopapanne svagapage cakui,
jvi mahocchvasa va’sasampanneadavanatagra nasika, mahadjusuniviadantamasyam, ayamavistaropapanna ‘slaka tanvi praktivarayukta jihva,
‘slaka yuktopacayamumopapanna rakta talu, mahanadina
snigdho’nunadi gambhirasamuttho dhira svara,
natisthulau natik’sau vistaropapannavasyapracchadanau raktavohau,
mahatyau hanu, vtta natimahati griva, vyuhamupacitamura,
guha jatru phava’sa’sca, viprakantarau stanau,
asampatini sthire par’sve, vttaparipurayatau bahu sakthini agulaya’sca,
mahadupacita paipada, sthira vtta snigdhastamrastuga
kurmakara karaja, pradakiavarta sotsaga ca nabhi,
urastribhagahina sama samupacitamasa kai,
vttau sthiropacitamasau natyunnatau natyavanatau sphicau,
anupurva vttavupacayayuktavuru, natyupacite natyapacite eipade
praguhasirasthisandhi jaghe, natyupacitau natyapacitau gulphau,
purvopadiaguau padau kurmakarau, praktiyuktani vatamutrapuriaguhyani
tatha svaprajagaraayasasmitaruditastanagrahaani,
yacca ki~ncidanyadapyanuktamasti tadapi sarva praktisampannamia, viparita punaraniam|
iti dirghayurlakaani||51||
After performing the rites for giving a name to the child, he is examined with a view to ascertaining the span of his life. The following signs and symptoms are those of children having a long span of life:

To a child having a long span of a life is given to normal flatus, urine, stool, anus, sleep, vigil, fatigue, smiling, crying, sucking of milk and similar other factors/phenomena which are not described here, they are neither more nor less than the normal.
If the child is with the organs/ phenomena having attributes in contradiction with what is described above, then they are indicative of less span of life of the child.
Thus ends the signs and symptoms of a child having a long span of life. [51]
Read – Ayurvedic Care Of The Newborn Baby: Jatamatra Paricharya
Selection of wet-nurse
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ato dhatriparikamupadekyama|
atha bruyat- dhatrimanaya samanavara yauvanastha nibhtamanaturamavyagamavyasanamavirupamajugupsita
de’sajatiyamakudramakudrakarmii kule jata vatsalamaroga jivadvatsa puvatsa
dogdhrimapramattamanuccara’sayinimanantyavasayini ku’salopacara ‘sucima’sucidveii stanastanyasampadupetamiti||52||
Now we shall describe the procedure to be adopted in selecting a wet-nurse. She is of the same caste, youthful (women before the attainment of youth have immature tissue elements and the tissue elements of old women had undergone destruction- hence they are not suitable to be employed as wet nurse), submissive, free from diseases, not deficient of limbs, not given to luxuries living, not ugly looking (because of deformity in her organs), not given to hateful disposition, born in the same locality, not mean minded, not hateful disposition, born in the same locality, not given to mean acts, born in a respectable family, having affection for children, free from illness, having living children, having sons, having plenty of milk, careful, not given to sleeping over clothes soiled with excreta, not having a husband of lower caste (e.g a sudra woman having a Candala Husband), skilful in service, observing cleanliness, having aversion for dirty things, having the excellence of breasts and milk. [52]
Read – Qualities of Ideal Wet Nurse: Dhatri Lakshana
Excellence of breasts
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tatreya stanasampat- natyurdhvau natilambavanatik’savanatipinau yuktapippalakau sukhaprapanau ceti (stanasampat)||53||
The qualities of excellent breasts are as follows:
They are situated at a very high level in the chest
They should not hang very loose
They should neither be very lean nor very plump
They have nipples of proportionate size
The child should find it easy to suckle them.
This is about the excellence of breasts. [53]
Excellence of breast- milk
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stanyasampattu praktivaragandharasaspar’sam, udapatre ca duhyamanamudaka vyeti
praktibhutatvat; tat puikaramarogyakara ceti (stanyasampat)||
ato’nyatha vyapanna j~neyam|
tasya vi’sea- ‘syavaruavara kaayanurasa vi’sadamanalakyagandha ruka drava phenila
laghvatptikara kar’sana vatavikaraa kart vatopasa kiramabhij~neya
kanilapitatamravabhasa tiktamlakaukanurasa kuaparudhiragandhi
bh’soa pittavikaraa kart ca pittopasa kiramabhij~neyam,
atyartha’suklamatimadhuryopapanna lavaanurasa ghtatailavasamajjagandhi
picchila tantumadukapatre’vasidachlemavikaraa kart ‘slemopasa kiramabhij~neyam||55||
Milk of excellent quality should have natural colour, smell, taste and touch. When poured over the water in a pot, it gets mixed up with the water if it is endowed with natural qualities. This provides nourishment and maintains good health of the child.
If the qualities of milk do not conform to the above, then it is considered as vitiated.
Read – Human Breast Milk Benefits, Ways To Increase Production

Characteristic features of the milk vitiated with Doshas are as follows:
Treatment of vitiated breast- milk

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tea tu trayaamapi kiradoaa prativi’seamabhisamikya yathasva
yathadoa ca vamanavirecanasthapananuvasanani vibhajya ktani pra’samanaya bhavanti|
pana’sanavidhistu duakiraya yavagodhuma’saliaikamudgahareukakulatthasurasauvirakamaireyamedakala’sunakara~njapraya syat|
kiradoavi’sea’scavekyavekya tattadvidhana karya syat|
pahamahauadhasuradarumustamurvaguucivatsakaphalakiratatiktakakaukarohiisarivakaayaa
ca pana pra’sasyate, tatha’nyea tiktakaayakaukamadhuraa dravyaa prayoga kiravikaravi’seanabhisamikya matra kala ca|
iti kiravi’sodhanani||56||
When (breast) milk gets vitiated, the specific nature of the vitiation is ascertained, and depending upon the Doshas involved and the quantum of their vitiation, the mother is given Vamana (emetic therapy), Virechana (purgation therapy), asthapana (corrective enema) and Anuvasana (unctuous enema) which ever is found suitable, for the cure of the ailment.
The food and drink of the mother whose milk is vitiated should for the most part consist of barley, wheat, Shali (Oryza Sativa Linn), Sasthika (a type of Shali), Mudga (Vigna radiata), harenuka (Lathyrus aphaca Linn), alcoholic preparations like Sura, Sauviraka Maireyaka and Medaka, Merr). Suitable regimens are advised to her depending upon the specific nature of the vitiation of milk.

Keeping in view the specific nature of the vitiation of milk, dose and time, it is beneficial to administer the decoction of Patha (Cissampelos pareira Linn), Mahausadha (Zingiber officinale Rosc), Suradaru (Cedrus deodara Loud), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn), Murva (Clematis triloba) Heyne ex Roth), Guduci (Tinspora cordifolia Miers), fruit of Vatsaka (Holarrhena antidysentrica wall) Kiratatikta (Swertia chirata Buch -Han), Katurohini (Picrohiza kurroa Royle ex Benth) (Individually or all of them together) and Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.B) and such other drugs having bitter, astringent, pungent and sweet tastes.
Thus the measures for the correction of the vitiation of milk are described. [56]
Read – Breast Milk Disorders: Symptoms, Detoxification, Remedies
Promoters of Lactation
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kirajananani tu madyani sidhuvarjyani,
gramyanupaudakani ca ‘sakadhanyamasani,
dravamadhuramlalavaabhuyiha’scahara, kiriya’scauadhaya,
kirapanamanayasa’sca, viraaaika’salikuvalikadarbhaku’saka’sagundretkaamulakaayaa
ca panamiti (kirajananani)||57||
The following are the promoters of lactation:
Wines except Sidhu (a type of wine)
Vegetable, corns and meat of animals which are domesticated and which inhabit the marshy land and water.
Food having the predominance of liquid ingredients or ingredients having sweet, sour and saline tastes
Medicinal plants having milky juice like Dugdhika and Kalambika (Ipomea reptans Poir).
Intake of milk and care free living
Intake of the decoction of the roots of Virana (Vetiveria zizanioides nash), Sasthika (a type of Shali) (Oryza sativa Linn), Iksuvalika (Astercantha longifolia Nees), Darbha (a type of Kusa), Kusa (Demostachya bipinnata Stapf), Kasha (Saccharum spontaneum Linn).
These are the promoters of lactation. [57]
Read – Stanya Janana Gana: Lactation Promoting Herbs: Review, Benefits, Formulations
Procedure for feeding the child

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dhatri tu yada svadubahula’suddhadugdha syattadasnatanulipta
‘suklavastra paridhayaindri brahmi ‘satavirya sahasraviryamamoghamavyatha
‘sivamaria vayapupi vivaksenakanta va bibhratyoadhi kumara pramukha prathama dakia stana payayet|
iti dhatrikarma||58||
The milk of the wetnurse is sweet in taste, copious and pure. Such a wet-nurse should take her bath, use unction, wear white cloth as well as medicines like Aindri (Citrullus colocynthis Schard), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Satavirya (Cynodon datcylon Pers), Sahasravirya (a type of satavirya), Amogha (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), Avyatha (Tinspora cordifolia Miers), Siva (Terminalia chebula Linn), Arista (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth), Vatyapuspi (Sida rhombifolia Linn) and Visvaksenakanta (Callicarpa macropylla). Thereafter, keeping the child facing towards the east, she should make him to suckle her right breast first.
Thus the duties of a wetnurse are described. [58]
Nursery

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ato’nantara kumaragaravidhimanuvyakhyasyama-
vastuvidyaku’sala pra’sasta ramyamatamaska nivata
pravataikade’sa dhamapagata’svapadapa’sudarimuikapataga
suvibhaktasalilolukhalamutravarcasthanasnanabhumimahanasamtusukha
yathartu’sayanasanastaraasampanna kuryat;
tatha suvihitarakavidhanabalimagalahomapraya’scitta ‘sucivddhavaidyanuraktajanasampuram|
iti kumaragaravidhi||59||
Now we shall describe the procedure for the construction of a nursery for the child. The nursery is constructed under the supervision of an expert architect. It should be
A commendable one
Beautiful
Free from darkness
Sheltered from drought
Admitting air only from one side
Sturdy
Free from Svapada (animals in general), Damstrin (fanged creatures), Rats and moths
Well planned places for water storage, grinding, lavatory, bathroom and kitchen
Comfortable for living in all seasons (air conditioned) and
Furnished with beds, seats and spreads in conformity with the needs of that particular season
There should be proper arrangement for the protection of the house from outside attacks. Sacrifices, auspicious rites, offering of oblations and recitation of verses are performed in the house. This house is kept crowded with persons who are clean, experienced physicians and those who have attachment with the family.
Thus the procedure for the construction of the nursery is described. [59]
Cleanliness of beds etc
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‘sayanasanastaraapravaraani kumarasya mdulaghu’sucisugandhini syu;
svedamalajantumanti mutrapuriopasani ca varjyani syu;
asati sambhave’nyea tanyeva ca suprakalitopadhanani sudhupitani ‘suddha’sukayupayoga gaccheyu||60||
Beds, seats, spreads and apparel of the child should be soft, light, clean and fragrant. Those which are soiled with sweat, excreta, germs, urine and stool is discarded. If it is not possible to procure new ones, then the old ones should be well exposed to sun after they are washed thoroughly. Thus they can be used only after they are rendered clean and dry. [60]
Read – Kumaragara: Children Ward (Room), Ayurvedic Perspective
Drugs for fumigation of cloths

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dhupanani punarvasasa ‘sayanastaraapravaraana ca
yavasarapatasihigugugguluvacacorakavayasthagolomijailapalakaa’sokarohiisarpanirmokai ghtayuktani syu||61||
Barley, mustard, Atasi (Linum usitutissimum Linn), Hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul Engl), Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn), Coraka (Angelica glauca Edgw), Vayastha (bacopa Monnieri Pennel), Golomi (a type of Vaca), Jatila (Nardostachys jatamansi D. C), Palankasha (a type of guggulu), Asoka (Saraca indica Linn), Rohini (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth) and slough of snake mixed with ghee is used for fumigation of clothes used for beds, spreads and apparel. [61]
Wearing talismans

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maaya’sca dharaiya kumarasya khagarurugavayavabhaa
jivatameva dakiebhyo viaebhyo’grai ghitani syu;
aindryadya’scauadhayo jivakarabhakau ca,
yani canyanyapi brahmaa pra’saseyuratharvavedavida||62||
The child is made to wear the following as tailsmans:
Jewels – like pearls etc (as prescribed in the Atharva Veda)
Tips of the right horns of rhinocirous, deer, gayal or bull collected when they are alive
Medicinal plants like Aindri etc. (vide para 58 of this chapter and sutra 4:18) Jivaka (?) and Rsabhaka (?)
Such other things as are praised and prescribed by the Brahmanas well versed with the AtharvaVeda. [62]
Toys

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krianakani khalu kumarasya vicitrai ghoavantyabhiramai cagurui
catikagrai canasya prave’sini capraaharai cavitrasanani syu||63||
Toys of the child is variegated, sound producing, beautiful, light, without sharp edge, incapable of being swallowed, fraught with no danger to life and unfrightening [63]
Child should not be frightened
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na hyasya vitrasana sadhu|
tasmattasmin rudatyabhu~njane va’nyatra vidheyatamagacchati
rakasapi’sacaputanadyana namanyahvayata kumarasya
vitrasanartha namagrahaa na karya syat||64||
One should not frighten the child (at any stage), therefore, whether he cries or does not eat or does not submit to discipline, he must not be frightened by calling the names of Raksasa, Pisaca, Putana etc. (all evil creatures). [64]
Read – Playground and Toys for Children As Explained In Ayurveda
Management of Pediatric diseases

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yadi tvaturya ki~ncit kumaramagacchet tatpraktinimittapurvarupaligopa’sayavi’seaistattvato’nubudhya
sarvavi’seanaturauadhade’sakala’srayanavekamaa’scikitsitumarabhetaina
madhuramdulaghusurabhi’sita’sakara karma pravartayan|
evasatmya hi kumara bhavanti|
tatha te ‘sarma labhante ciraya|
aroge tvarogavttamatihedde’sakalatmaguaviparyayea vartamana,
krameasatmyani parivartyopayu~njana sarvayahitani varjayet|
tatha balavara’sarirayua sampadamavapnotiti||
evamena kumaramayauvanaprapterdharmarthakau’salagamanaccanupalayet||66||
If the child gets afflicted with any disease, it should be properly diagnosed, with due regard to the specific nature of the etiology, premonitory symptoms, symptoms and Upasaya (homologatory signs) of the disease. Simultaneously, characteristic features of the patient, drugs, locality, season and physical constitution of the child is examined.

Thereafter, he should be treated by administering therapies which are sweet, soft, light, fragnant, cold and comfortable and those which yield long standing effects. If he is free from any disease whatsoever, the child should be made to resort to regimens which are opposite in quality to the locality, time and bodily constitution for the maintenance of positive health. Unwholesome regimens should gradually be avoided. By doing so, the child gets endowed with excellent strength, complexion, physical constitution and span of life.
In this manner, from childhood to youth, the child is brought up till he is competent to perform religious rites and earn wealth. [65-66]
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iti putra’sia samddhikara karma vyakhyatam|
tadacaran yathoktairvidhibhi puja yathea labhate’nasuyaka iti||67||
Thus the measures for the fulfilment of desire to have progeny are described. By taking recourse to these factors in the prescribed manner, one who is free from envy is blessed (with progeny) according as he wishes. [67]
Read – Infant Care As Per Ayurveda: Initial 6 Months

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tatra ‘slokau-
putra’sia karma samddhikaraka yaduktametanmahadarthasahitam|
tadacaran j~no vidhibhiryathatatha puja yathea labhate’nasuyaka||68||
To sum up:-
Measures described here fulfill the desire of the individual to obtain a son and they are of great importance. By taking recourse to these measures in a prescribed manner, wise man free envy is blessed (with a child) according as he wishes. [68]
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‘sarira cintyate sarva daivamanuasampada|
sarvabhavairyatastasmaccharira sthanamucyate||69||

This section is known as “Sharirasthana” because it deals with the description of the knowledge which is conducive to be understanding of all the godly and human aspects of the phenomena in the individual’s body. [69

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ityagnive’sakte tantre carakapratisaskte ‘sarirasthane
jatisutriya ‘sarira namaamo’dhyaya||
iti carakasahitaya cathurtha ‘sarirasthana sampuram
Thus ends the eighth chapter of the Sharira section dealing with the description of the method of procreation as conducive to the understanding of the human body, of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka. [8]
Thus ends the Sharira Section.
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8th chapter of Charaka Shareera sthana deals with “The method of Procreation “as conducive to the understanding of the human body. The chapter name is Jatisutriyam Shaareeram.
Read – Embryology As Per Ayurveda
Table of Contents

Method of Procreation
We shall now explore the chapter on “The method of Procreation “as conducive to the understanding of the human body. Thus said Lord Atreya [1-2]
Method of procreating excellent progeny
Now we shall explain the method by which the man with unimpaired semen and, the woman with unimpaired ovum and uterus desirous of an excellent progeny can achieve their objective [3]
Read – Herbs Useful For Maintenance Of Pregnancy
Preparatory measures
The couple is treated with oleation and sudation therapies and thereafter the Doshas from their body is eliminated by the administration of Vamana (emesis) and Virechana (Purgation) therapies. Then the patient is brought to normalcy in stage (by administering of prescribed diet).
After the elimination of Doshas, the couple is administered with Asthapana (corrective / decoction / cleansing) and anuvasana (unctuous) types of enema. Man should also be administered ghee and milk boiled with drugs having sweet taste. The woman is given til oil and Masha (Black gram) to eat. [4]
Cohabitation
For three days, right from the day of onset of menstruation, the woman should –
observe celibacy
sleep on the ground
take food from an unbroken vessel kept in her hands and
should never clean her body
On the fourth day
she should use unction
take head-bath and wear white apparel
her husband should also adopt the same regimen
both of them wearing white apparel for each other should enter into cohabitation
if a male child is desired, they should meet on the odd days
During intercourse, the woman should not assume a prone posture (face downwards). She should also not be prone over the man who is supine nor should she be in her sides. If she maintains a prone posture during cohabitation then Vata gets aggravated and afflicts her uterus. This might cause disorders of vagina and uterus.

If she remains in her right-side during intercourse then Kapha which remains in that side gets displaced and blocks the uterus. Left side is the abode of Pitta. If pressure is put on that side during intercourse, then the ovum and the sperm get burnt up. Therefore, the woman should receive seed while lying on her back. In this posture Doshas remain in their respective sites and will also not produce any complication.
After the completion of intercourse, she is sprinkled / given bath with cold water. The below mentioned factors prevents conception or produces a deformed child in a woman during intercourse –
intake of food in excess
fasting
thirst
fear
dejection
grief
anger
desire for another man
excessive desire for intercourse
One should not indulge in intercourse with a woman who is too young or old, who is suffering from a chronic disease or afflicted with any other disease. Similarly, a woman should not indulge in intercourse with a man having the same defects. Therefore, the couple desirous of having healthy progeny should ensure that they are free from all such defects before entering into the sexual act.
The couple having excitement for intercourse should take relishing and wholesome food (not in excess), and arrange for bed which is pleasant, scented, well spread and comfortable, man should ascend this bed with his right leg first and the woman with her left leg first.
Then this Mantra (incantation) is recited. “Oh foetus, you are the serpent God (vibrant like Sun God), you are my life, you are my reputition, and you constitute the support of everything. May the God, the saviour of the world protects you, May the creator protect and maintain you. Be equipped with Brahmavarcas. May Brahma, Brhaspati, Vishnu, Soma, Surya, the Asvins, Bhaga, Mitra and Varuna provide me with a brave male child in this foetus. Having recited this Mantra, they should enter into intercourse. [5-8]
Read – Planning for Baby (Conception) with the Help of Ayurveda
Regimens for a son of excellent qualities
If she desires to have a son with a massive body, white complexioned with the strength like that of a lion, with vigour, purity and strong mind, then from the first day of her purificatory bath (after the menstruation) she is given Mantha (thin gruel) prepared with white barley by boiling it with the milk of a white cow having a white calf and mixing it with ghee and honey in a silver or bronze vessel to drink every morning and evening continuously for one week.
In the morning and also in the evening one should consume rice or food preparations prepared with barley flour mixed with curds, honey, ghee or milk. In the evening sleep on white mattress / bed sheets (bed covered with white cloth) placed in a white-colored house / apartment, and use white-colored drinks (milk, juice, buttermilk etc) and wear white colored apparel and ornaments. In the morning and evening, she should continuously look at a white and corpulent bull, a white horse belonging to an appreciable clan or white sandalwood or she is entertained with pleasing and favourite stories.
The woman should see and be in the company of men and women with good personalities, pleasing words and refined behaviour and actions, and pleasant objects of senses i.e. sounds, touch, objects of vision, tastes and smell. Her friends too should behave in a good and pleasant way with her. The husband of the woman too should conduct himself with a decent behaviour with her. They should also not get intimate physically for seven days. After having adopted the above regimens for seven nights, she along with her husband should take a complete bath including the head and should wear white and unturned apparel as well as white garlands and ornaments. [9]
Read – Conception And Formation Of Fetus As Per Ayurveda
Vedic rites for procreating a child of desire qualities
Then the priest should select a suitable place. The place should have sloping towards the east or the north. This place is smeared with cow dung mixed with water.

There, an altar is erected after sprinkling the water. He (the priest) should thereafter be seated towards the west of the altar.
If he is invited by a Brahmana, he should sit on a cushion prepared of untorn (fresh) clothes or the hide of a white bull.
If he is invited by a Ksatriya he should sit on the hide of a tiger or a bullock.
If invited by a Vaishya he should sit on the hide of an antelope or a he-goat.
The priest should then offer the wood of one of the below mentioned to the fire in the form of oblation –
Palasha (Butea monosperma)
Ingudi (Balanites aegyptica)
Udumbara (Ficus recemosa Linn), or
Madhuka (Madhuka indica)
Then the altar is covered with Kusha (Desmostachya bipinnata), and it is bound by the four big sticks of Palasha. Between the altar and the boundary created around it, parched / puffed rice and white fragrant flowers should be spread out. The priest should take the sacred water pot, purified with sacred Mantras and get the ghee purified for the sake of oblation and then bring the steed etc. The shelter constructed around the altar should be decorated with garlands of white flowers.
As described above all the things should be placed all around the altar.
The woman along with her husband desirous of having a son (child) should sit towards the west of the sacred fire and towards the south of the priest, should perform the sacred rites and should express her desire to have the progeny of excellent quality.
After she has expressed her desire, the priest should respectfully remember Prajapati and with a view to fulfilling the desired progeny in her womb, should offer Kamya type of oblation (to the fire), reciting the Mantra (may Lord Vishnu fulfil her desire in the womb)- Rgveda – 10: 148:8.
[May lord Vishnu prepares the womb; May Lord Tvastr makes the respective forms; may Lord Prajapati spray the sperm: May Lord Dhatr protects your (wife’s) womb]. Immediately thereafter the priest should prepared the Sthali Paka (caru i.e. rice cooked with ghee) and offer it three times as oblation to the fire as prescribed in the Vedas.
Read – Ghee Benefits, Usage, Side Effects, Contra Indications

He should then hand over the water vessel impregnated with Mantras to her and say “You should use this for all purpose for which water is required”. On completion of these sacred rites, she should take a round of the sacred fire along with her husband with her right step preceding the other one. Then other Brahmanas assembled there should recite auspicious hymns. Thereafter the husband should consume the remaining portion of ghee used for sacrifice (fire sacrifice ritual) enchanted by auspicious hymns by the Brahmanas. Later the wife should consume the same ghee (other portion). The entire ghee should be consumed by the couple without leaving out even a small quantity (should not be wasted). Thereafter they should have intercourse for eight nights. They should continue to use the same type of apparel in order to procreate a son of desired qualities.
A woman who desires to have a son of bluish complexion, red eyes, elevated chest and long arms or who desires to have a son of black complexion having black, soft and long hair, white eyes, white teeth, brilliance and self control should perform the same scared rite as mentioned above.
But the variation will be only with regard to the colour of the apparel used. The woman desirous of having a child bearing particular body color should also wear apparel of the same colour.
A woman of shudra caste should live in a house, wear clothes, ornaments and garlands, use seating, bedding, foods and drinks having forms and colors which she would desire to have it in her child. She should offer only obeisance to the Gods, fire, Brahmanas, preceptors, ascetics and Siddhas (those who have attained perfection).
The woman is asked to visit a country or region of her choice in her mind depending on which ‘country-man’ would she wishes her son to resemble. She should also be asked to adopt the food, regimen, manners and apparel of the people of those countries whom she wishes her son to resemble.
Thus the regimens to be followed by a woman desirous of having a son of her choice have been explained. [10-14]
Read – Mantra Therapy For Prevention Of Abortion – Varana Bandha
Other factors responsible for the complexion of progeny
It is not that only the above-mentioned factors are responsible for begetting a child of a specific colour. Even the Agni mahabhuta when associated with Jala and Akasha Mahabhutas also produce white complexion.
Agni associated with Prthvi and Vayu produces black complexion and with all the Mahabhutas in equal proportion, it produces blue complexion. [15]
Read – Panchamahabhuta: Application, Areas of Utility in Ayurveda treatment
Mental faculty of the progeny
The following factors determine the state of the mental faculty of the child:
The mental faculty of parents
The sounds, words and conversations (music etc) heard repeatedly by the pregnant woman;
Actions performed by the embryo in his previous life and
Frequent practice and indulgence in a particular type of mental faculty by the progeny in his previous life (being used to the qualities of sattva, raja or tama mind faculties in the previous birth will be carried by the mind into its consecutive births) [16]
Read – Sub Types Of Personality Features Based On Satva, Rajas, Tamas
Importance of purification of body of the couple
When a man and woman copulate after purifying their bodies according to the methods prescribed above, the unimpaired sperm unites with the unimpaired ovum in the unimpaired womb lying within an unimpaired genital tract. Then this definitely results in the formation of an embryo.
Just like a spotless clean cloth becomes colored on coming in contact with coloring substance, just like the milk abandons its original form and gets converted into curds when it comes in contact with few drops of curd, the sperm on coming in contact with ovum (and getting associated with it) forms the embryo. [17]
Sexual characteristics of Progeny
Factors responsible for bringing about masculine or feminine characteristics in the embryo have already been described. An unimpaired seed sown (in a fertile land) germinates bearing its own characteristic features, e.g paddy from paddy seed and barley from barley seed. So the male and female characteristics of the embryo are determined by those of the parents. (c f Sarira , 2:12). [18]
Pumsavana
The procedure prescribed in the Vedas (Ayurveda) to be properly adopted to change the sex of the foetus before its manifestation is now being described.
These methods, if adopted, in association with the excellence of locality and time produce the desired effects invariably. If there is any variation in these, the results would become otherwise. Therefore, the pregnant woman is administered Pumsavana therapy (to beget a male child) before the manifestation of the sex of the foetus.
These recipes are given below:
During the conjunction of Pusya star (with moon), two fresh and intact buds from the branches of a Banyan tree grown in eastern or northern side, in a cow-shed, along with 2 grains of Masha i.e. black gram or white variety of mustard seeds should be ground in curds. This should be given for drinking to the pregnant woman.
Similarly milk boiled with the paste of Jivaka, Rsabhaka, Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera) and Sahacara (Barleria cristala Linn) – all of them together or any one, two or three of them together as per requirement is given to the pregnant woman for the desired effect.
During Pusya conjunction, she should drink an Anjali (a handful of) of water added with Kudyakitaka (a type of small insect) or Matsyaka (a type of small fish).
During Pusya conjunction, she is made to drink without any remnant, an Anjali (a handful of) of curd, milk or water in which a small and dazzling (fire coloured) statue of a man prepared of gold, silver or iron made red hot on fire is dipped in.
During Pusya conjunction, she should inhale the steam coming out of the water boiled by adding flour of Shali rice. To this processed flour (shali rice paste formed after its cooking), water is added again. A cotton swab is dipped in this fluid. Later she should sleep resting her head on the threshold with head low position. She should take the cotton swab dipped in rice flour water and squeeze it into her right nostril such that the drops enter the right part of the nose.
In addition to the above, other therapies as prescribed by Brahmanas and saintly ladies for Pumsavana (to beget a male child) are adopted.
Thus ends the Pumsavana rites. [9]
Read – Qualities Of Water, Drinks and Foods Stored In Different Vessels
Measures for maintenance of pregnancy
Hereafter we shall describe the measures which help in the measure which help in the maintenance of pregnancy.
Aindri (Citrulus colocynthis)
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri)
Satavirya (Cynodon doctylon)
Sahasravirya (a variety of Durva)
Amongha or patala (Stereospermum suaveolens DC)
Avyatha or Guduci (Tinspora cordifolia)
Siva (Terminalia chebula Linn)
Arista (Picrorhiza kurroa)
Vatyapuspi or yellow variety of Bala (Sida cordifolia Linn)
Visvaksenakanta or Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl)
All these medicines are worn (tied to) in the head or right hand of the pregnant woman and milk or ghee boiled with these drugs is taken (oral consumption) by her. She should take bath in water boiled with these drugs during Pusya conjunction. She should also touch these drugs.
In the above manner all drugs included under Jivaniya group- vide Sutra, 4:8 should always be used by her. Thus measures which help in the maintenance of pregnancy are described. [20]
Read – Jeevaneeya Gana Herbs of Charaka: Review, Medicines, Benefits
Factors injurious to pregnancy
The following factors cause impairment on pregnancy:
seating which are uncomfortable, irregular and high
forcibly withholding the urges of flatus, urination and defecation
getting indulged in difficult exercises which doesn’t suit one’s capacity
consumption of foods hot and sharp in nature
consumption of foods in excessive or less quantity
taking foods rich only in one or two tastes
The above mentioned factors lead either to the death of the foetus inside the uterus, premature birth, abortion or cachexia of the foetus.
Other factors which leads to miscarriage or abortion –
injury
frequent pressure
frequently looking inside abysses, deep wells and place of water fall
travelling in the vehicles which are excessively uncomfortable (jerky)
hearing of unbearable sounds in excess
Other harmful factors and their effects
Defects in the offspring caused by the vitiation of the sperm of the father are to be described on the same line as those of the mother. Thus the factors responsible for the impairment of the pregnancy are described.
Thus the parents, especially the mother, desirous of an offspring endowed with excellent quantities should refrain from unwholesome diet and regimens. They should perform virtuous acts resort to diets and regimens which are beneficial. [21]
Read – Factors That Harm Fetus, Avoidable Food And Habits In Pregnancy
Line of treatment of a pregnant woman
A physician should treat her aliments by means of drugs, diet and other regimens which are mostly soft, sweet, cold, pleasant and tender. She should not be administered emesis; purgation, head-purging errhines (nasal medication) and bloodletting therapies. Unless the disease is exceedingly serious, she should never be administered asthapana (corrective type of enema) and anuvasana (oleating type of enema). Emesis etc. may however, be given to the pregnant woman after the eight months of pregnancy, if there is any serious emergency. But these therapies or any such other therapies having similar action should be of very mild nature. Any such therapies here means gargle, mouth wash or expectorant therapies should be done instead of emesis, suppositories should be administered instead of purgation therapy oil pooling therapy over the head should be done instead of errhines. A pregnant woman is to be treated very cautiously as if one is walking with a pot full of oil, in hand without letting a drop to fall. [22]
Abortion
If there is a flow of menstruation during the second or third month of pregnancy due to the unwholesome regimens, then one should conclude that the pregnancy will not be stable because during this period, the embryo lacks maturity. [23]
Miscarriage and its management
If there is bleeding from the genital tract during the fourth month of pregnancy or thereafter due to excess of anger, grief, envy, jealousy, fear, terror, cohabitation, exercise, jerk, suppression of the manifested urges, improper food, wrong posture, hunger, thirst and intake of unwholesome food then following procedure is adopted for the maintenance of pregnancy:
Immediately after the manifestation of bleeding she is advised to lie down in head-low and elevated leg position on the bed covered with a soft, soothing, comfortable and cooling bed-sheet.
Thereafter, a cotton swab dipped in ghee mixed with the powder of licorice which are kept inside excessively cold water is placed over the vagina.
Her entire body below the navel is smeared with Satadhauta-Ghrta (ghee washed for one hundred times) and Sahasradhauta Grtha (ghee washed for one thousand times).
Her entire body below the navel is sprinkled with excessively cold cow- milk, decoction of licorice and the decoction prepared of Nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis Linn) etc.
She is bathed with cold water.
Cotton swabs dipped in the juice of Ksiri vrkshas (trees bearing milk / latex yielding trees) and trees having astringent taste are kept inside her vagina.
Cotton swabs dipped in the milk or ghee boiled with the sunga (bud) of Nyarodha etc. may also be kept inside the vagina.
She may be given the milk or ghee boiled with the bud or Nyagrodha to be taken in the dose of an Aksa (12ml)
She may be given milk or ghee alone.
Pollens of Padma (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn), Utpala (Nymphea alba Linn) and Kumuda (a variety of Utpala) along with honey and sugar may be given to her as linctus.
She should eat Srngataka (Trapa bispinosa Roxb), seeds of Puskara (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) and Kaseruka (Scripus grossus Linn f)
She may be given milk boiled with Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl), blue variety of Utpala (Nympheaea alba Linn) and buds of Nyagrodha (Ficus benghalensis Linn) to drink.
She is given to eat soft, fragrant and cold rice of red variety of Shali (Oryza Sativa Linn) along with honey and sugar mixed with the milk boiled with Bala (sida cordifolia Linn), Atibala (a variety of Bala), roots of Shali, swastika (a variety ofShali) and iksu (Saccharum Officinarum Linn) and Kakoli.
She should reside in a comfortable place having cold breeze and take the rice prepared of red variety ofc along with the meat soup of animals, viz Lava (common quail), Kapinjala (Gray bar), Sasa (Rabbit), Harina (black buck), ena (Antelope) and Kalapucchaka (Black tailed deer) well seasoned with ghee.
She should refrain from anger, sorrow, exertion, sexual intercourse and exercise.
She is entertained with talks which are gentle and gives pleasure to her mind. The above measures help in maintaining pregnancy. [24]
Miscarriage caused by Sama
If bleeding appears because of the factors which are simultaneously responsible for the formation of Ama, this mostly leads to abortion because both of them (correction of bleeding and Ama formation) require mutually contradictory treatment. [25]
Read – Bleeding During Pregnancy: Causes, Ayurvedic Treatment
Upavistaka and Nagodara
Upavishtaka – Bleeding or any other form of uterine secretion may occur because of the intake of hot and sharp things by a pregnant woman in whom the vital elements of the foetus have been formed and the shape and form of the foetus too are in matured state.
Evidently this amounts to the loss of vital elements from its body through exudation, resulting in inhibition to the growth of foetus. Such a foetus remains inside the womb for a very long time. This condition is known by some experts as Upavistaka (prolonged gestation).
If the pregnant women resorts to fasting and observance of religious rites, if there is malnutrition, if she has aversion to the intake of fats and if she resorts to such factors which might cause aggravation of vata, the foetus dries up and does not grow. Such a foetus remains in the womb of the mother for a very long period and there is no quacking of the foetus. This condition is known as Nagodara (elephantine Gestation). [26]
Read – Upavishtaka, Upashushka Garbha – Meaning, Symptoms, Treatment
Management of Upavistaka etc
We shall now explain the specific treatment for both the above-mentioned condition of the pregnant woman.
She should use eggs, and ghee or milk boiled with Bhautika (drugs which are antagonistic to evil spirits and germs like Vaca) Guggulu, Mahapaisacika Ghrta- Vide Cikitsa, 9:45- 48), Jivaniya (vitalizing drugs), Brmhaniya (drugs promoting the corpulence of the body), madhura (drugs having sweet taste) and Vatahara (drugs which alleviate Vata) drugs for the growth of the foetus.
She should take ghee etc. boiled with the above mentioned drugs when there is good appetite.
This is supplemented by the frequent use of a (proper) conveyance for travelling, bath and geniculation. [27]
Treatment of Nagodara
The patient whose foetus being inactive does not quicken, is given soft, sweet and cooling juice of red variety of Shali (oryza Sativa Linn) along with the
meat soup of either of the animals and birds like falcon, fish, gayal cow, peacock, cock, and partridge mixed with ghee or with soup prepared of masha or radish mixed with ghee in large quantity. Her abdomen, lower abdomen, groin, thighs, waist, sides of chest and back is frequently massaged with luke-warm oil. [28]
Treatment of ailments in eighth month
If she suffers from Udavarta (an acute condition in the abdomen characterized by the retention of feces) along with constipation during the eight month of pregnancy, administration of anuvasana basti (unctuous enema) is considered to be unsuitable because of the association of ama in this condition. In this condition she is given with Niruha Basti (corrective enema). If neglected, Udavarta causes the death of the pregnant woman along with the foetus or of foetus alone.
A decoction is prepared by boiling the roots of Virana (Vetiveria zizoanioides Nash), Shali (Oryza sativa Linn),Sastika (a type of Shali), Kusha (Demostachya bipinnata Staf), Kasha (Saccharum spontaneum Linn), Iksuvalika (Asteracantha longifolia Nees), Vetasa (Shalix caprea Linn), Parivyadha (a type of Vetasa), and Bhutika (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague), Ananta (Hemidesmus indicus R.B), Kashmarya (Gmelina glabra Linn), Parushaka (Grewia asiatica Linn), Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) and Mrdvika (Vitis vinifera Linn), in milk added with water half in quantity. To this decoction, the paste of Priyala (Budhanania Lazan Spreng), pulp inside the seed of Bibhitaka (Terminalia bellerica Roxb) and Tila (Semum indicum Linn) and small quantity of salt is added. This mixture, when slightly warm, is administered as Niruha (corrective enema.).
After the constipation is relieved, her body is washed with water of pleasant temperature and she is given food which promotes stability and does not cause burning sensation. Thereafter, in the evening she is administered anuvasana basti (unctuons) type of enema prepared by boiling oil with the group of sweet drugs. Anuvasana and Niruha types of enema are administered to her while she is in a prone posture. [29]
Read – Ayurvedic Diet And Lifestyle For Pregnant Woman
Signs and foetal death
The foetus may die inside the womb of the woman due to
Excessive accumulation of Doshas
Excessive intake of sharp and hot things
Suppression of the manifested urges of flatus, urine and stool,
Maintenance of irregular posture in sitting, sleeping, standing, compression and injury
Anger, grief, envy, fear, terror etc.and other activities which are beyond her strength and capacity
Symptoms death of foetus inside the womb –
The woman’s abdomen becomes still, rigid, extended, cold and hard as if a there is a stone inside
Absence of quickening of the foetus
Manifestation of excessive pain
No manifestation of labour pain
Absence of any secretion from the genital tract
Sunken eyes
Fainting
Agonizing pain
Giddiness
Severe breathlessness
Restlessness / excessive disliking for everything and
Improper manifestation of natural urges
With these symptoms, the woman is diagnosed as carrying a dead foetus in her womb. [30]
Read – Intrauterine Death Of Fetus In Ayurveda
Management of a woman with dead foetus
To give relief to such a patient having a dead foetus in her womb, the following three methods are prescribed:
Expulsion of the placenta
Recitation of Mantras etc., as prescribed in the Atharva Veda and
Removal of the dead foetus by surgical measure by an experienced surgeon
(The dead foetus inside the womb may either be a mature or an immature one).
If it is immature, after the removal of the dead foetus, she is given in the beginning to drink either of the Sura, Sidhu, Arista, Madhu, and Madira and Asava types of wine, in accordance with her capacity, for the purification of the sense of exhilaration. Thereafter, till the excessive moisture in Doshas and Dhatus are dried up, she is immediately given Yavagu (gruel) etc; which is palatable and strength promoting, without adding any fat into it. Thereafter she is treated with the administration of fats, enema and different types of diet which are Dipaniya (promoters of digestive power), Jivaniya (promoters of Vitality), Brmhaniya (promoters of corpulence), Madhura (sweet in taste in taste), and Vatahara (alleviators of Vata).
For a patient whose foetus has had attained maturity before death, is given fatty things very immediately after the dead foetus is removed. [31]
Read – Anomalies, Defects In Fetus, Ayurvedic Treatment
Regimens for a pregnant woman
Now we shall describe the measures to be adopted month by month for the foetus which grows without any morbidity
First month
If pregnancy is suspected she should take milk in adequate quantity regularly. This milk need not be boiled with anything and is taken when it is cold. She should take wholesome food morning and evening.
Second month
Milk is given boiled with drugs having sweet taste.
Third month
Milk mixed with honey and ghee should be given.
Fourth month
Milk is given along with butter in one Karsa (12g) dose.
Fifth Month
Ghee extracted directly from milk (without subjecting it to fermentation leading to the formation of curd) is given to her.
Sixth month
Ghee taken out directly from milk and boiled with Madhurausadhis (drugs which are sweet in taste) is given.
Seventh month
She is given the same medication prescribed for sixth month.
According to the notion commonly prevalent among women, the mother during this month gets burning sensation (in the chest) because of the growth of hair in the foetus but this is not correct according to Lord Atreya. According to him, three Doshas viz, Vata, Pitta and Kapha get into the chest because of the pressure of the foetus and this causes burning sensation there which leads to itching resulting in the formation of Kikkisa (Linea albicantes or white abdominal lines seen after pregnancy).
For the management of such a condition the following therapies are prescribed.
She is made to drink regularly one Tola (12g) of butter boiled with Madhurausadhi (certain selected drugs having swet taste) along with decoction of Kola (Zjzyphus Jujuba LaM)
Read – Garbhasrava, Garbhapata – Meaning, Causes, Ayurveda Treatment
Her breasts and abdomen is anointed with
the paste of Chandana (Santalum album Linn) and Mrnala (lotus stalk)
Powder of Sirisa (Albizia lebbeck Benth), Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz), Sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch) and Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) or
Paste of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn), Turmeric, or
Paste of Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), Kola (Zizyphus jujuba Lam), surasa (Ocimum sanctum Linn) and Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia Linn) or
Triphala (Terminalia chebula Linn, Terminalia belerica Roxb, and Emblics officinalia Gaertn) mixed with the blood of Prsata (spotted deer) and rabbit
Gentle massage is given with oil boiled with the leaves of Karavira (Nerium indicum Mill).
Water boiled with Malati (Agnosma dicotoma K. Schum) and Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) is used for affusion.
When she feels the itching sensation, she should not scratch the part because it may injure the skin and disfigure it. When the itching is intolerable, it is corrected by kneading and friction massage.
The ingredients of her food are sweet in taste and they alleviate Vata. The food is taken in small quantity without adding fat and salt. Water, in small quantity is used as Anupana (post- prandial drink).
Eight month
During this month, she should regularly take milk and gruel added with ghee. This was not acceptable to Bhadrakapya. According to him this will cause Pingala (tawny) colouration of the eyes of the foetus. Lord Punarvasu Atreya replied, “Even if there is (twenty) coloration of the eyes of the foetus, it is not that this therapy should not be given. By doing this, the mother herself will keep good health and give birth to a child endowed with the excellence of health, strength, complexion, voice and compactness which will make him the best even among the children of the entire clan.
Ninth Month
She is given Anuvasana Basti (unctuous enema) with the oil boiled with Madhurausasadhi (certain selected drugs having sweet taste).
Cotton swabs soaked in this oil are kept in the vagina for the oleation of the uterus and genital tract.
Read – Monthly Development Of Fetus – Ayurvedic perspective
Benefits of monthly management
Adoption of the above-mentioned procedure for the management of the pregnant woman right from the first month up to the ninth month of pregnancy help in the following:
Softening of placenta, pelvis, waist, sides of the chest and back
Downward movement of Vata (flatus)
Normalization of the urine and stool and their elimination with ease;
Softening of her skin and nails
Promotion of strength and complexion and
Delivery with ease of desirable and healthy son (child) endowed with excellent qualities in proper time. [32]
Construction of maternity home
Before the ninth month of her pregnancy, the maternity home is constructed in a place free from bones, gravels and pieces of earthen vessels. The soil of the locality should have excellent colour, taste and smell. Its doors should face towards the east or the north and the wood of Bilva (Aegle marmelos corr), Tinduka (Dispyros perregrina Curke), Ingudi (Balanites aeyptica Delile), Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn), Varana and Khadira (Acacia catechu Wild) is used for the construction of this maternity home.
Such other measures prescribed by the Brahmanas well versed with the Athrava Veda should also be adopted. This house is equipped with cloth, sheet and bed covers, fire place, water storage, place for pounding, lavatory, bath-room and kitchen is provided here as per the instructions laid down in Vastuvidya (Science of House building). It is made air-conditioned to make it comfortable for the particular season. [33]
Read – After Delivery Care Of Mother For First Three Months By Ayurveda
Drugs to be stored in Maternity home
The following drugs are stored in the maternity home:
Ghee
Oil
Honey
Rock-salt
Sonchal salt
Black salt
Vida salt
Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm.f)
Kustha (Saussurea lappa C.B Clarke)
Killima (Cedrus deodara Loud)
Nagara (Zingiber officinale Rose)
Pippali (Piper longum Linn)
Root of Pippali (Piper longum)
Hastipippali (Scindapsus officinalis Schott)
Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica urban)
Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton)
Langali (Gloriosa superba)
Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn)
Cavya (Piper chaba Hunter)
Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn)
Cirabilva (Pongamia pinnata Merr)
Hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss)
Sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch)
Lasuna (Alium sativum Linn)
Kataka (Strychnos potatorum Linn F)
Kana (also kmown as Kundaka
Kanika (having grains thicker than those of Kana)
Nipa (Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich)
Atasi (Linum usitaissimum Linn)
Balvaja
Bhurja (Betula utilis)
Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn)
Maireya, Sura and Asava types of wine
In addition to the above following substances is kept there.
Two grinding stones
Two small pestles
Two mortars
One untamed Bull
Two gold and silver cases for keeping needless
Various surgical instruments which is sharp and prepared of metal
Two bed-steeds made of Bilva (Aegle Marmelos Corr)
Wood of Tinduka (Diopyros peregrina Gurke) and Ingudi (Balanites aeyptica Delile) for fuel
Number of female attendants who are multiparas, affectionate, constantly attached to love, free, from grief, tolerant of hardship and agreeable,
Brahmins well versed in the Atharva Veda.
Besides the above, whatever is found necessary and advised by the Brahmins and told ladies should also be kept there. [34]
Read – Postpartum Afterpains – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment
Admission into maternity home
At the onset of ninth month of pregnancy, on an auspicious day having the propitious moon in conjunction with a favourable constellation and during a propitious Karana (an astrological term indicating a division of the day) and Muhurta (an approximate time) oblation should be offered to the sacred fire for peace. Cows, Brahmanas, fire and water is brought to the maternity home in the first instance. Cows are given grass, water and fried paddy added with honey and the Brahmanas are given Aksata (unbroken grains of rice), flowers, and fruits like Kharjura (Dates / Phoenix sylvestris Roxb) which are indicative of good fortune.
The woman should take water and then, after prayers to the respected ones, seated properly. Thereafter she should perform Acamana (taking water in a manner prescribed for auspicious occasions) again and therefore others should recite auspicious Mantras. Then Punyaha (Lit auspicious day) Mantra is recited. Keeping the cow and the Brahmanas in right side, she should enter into the maternity home. There, she should wait for the time of delivery. [35]
Signs of impending delivery
The following signs indicate the approach of the time of delivery.
Exhaustion of the limbs
Feeling of depression in the face
Looseness in eyes
Feeling in the chest as if a knot is being untied
Feeling as if something is coming down from the pelvis
Heaviness in the lower part of the body
Pain in groin, region of baldder, pelvis, sides of the chest and back
Onset of show from the gential tract and
Loss of appetite
Thereafter true labour pain associated with the excretion of amniotic fluid starts. [36]
Management after onset of labour pain
When the labour pain starts, a bed is prepared on the ground with soft material used as bed spread and she should be asked to sit over it. Female attendants having the above mentioned qualities should thereafter remain all around her and console her with talks which are comforting and consoling to her. [37]
Read – Signs And Symptoms In Different Stages Of Labor As Per Ayurveda
Management in case of delay in delivery
Some are of the view that if the delivery does not take place in spite of severe labour pain, the pregnant woman is instructed to get up and take up one of pounding clubs (Pestles). With the help of this club she should frequently strike the container / mortar filled up with corns. Simultaneously she should frequently resort to pendicilation and while doing so, according to them, she is asked to resort to circumambulation at intervals.
This proposition is not acceptable to Lord Atreya because pregnant women are invariably advised to avoid violent exercises, specially during the time of delivery, in the delicate body of the woman, all the Doshas and Dhatus are in a state of instability and if she resorts to exercise with the help of a club, Vayu gets aggravated, and finding an opportunity, it may destroy the life. Such a condition of a pregnant woman is too difficult to cure. Therefore, Rshis (sages) are of the view that pregnant woman should not resort to exercise with a club. Pendiculation and circumambulation can however be resorted to.
For inhalation she is given the powder of Kustha (Sausserea lappa C.B Clarke), ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton), Langalika (Gloriosa superb Linn), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn), Cirabilva (Pongamia pinnata Mirr) and Chavya (Pipper chaba Hunter). She should inhale this powder frequently. Back of Bhuraj (Betula utilis D. Don) and the pith of Simshapa (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb) may be used for fumigation.
At intervals she is anointed with warm oil on her waist, sides of the chest, back and thighs and they are gently massaged. By doing this the foetus is brought downwards. [38]
Read – Untimely and Delayed Labor As Per Ayurveda (Garbha Sangha – Akala Prasava)
Recitation of mantra
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sa yada janiyadvimucya hdayamudaramasyastvavi’sati,
basti’siro’vaghati, tvarayantyenamavya, parivartate’dho garbha iti;
asyamavasthaya paryakamenamaropya pravahayitumupakrameta|
kare casya mantramimamanukula stri japet-
‘kitirjala viyattejo vayurviu prajapati|
sagarbha tva sada pantu vai’salya ca di’santu te|
prasuva tvamavikliamaviklia ‘subhanane!|
kartikeyadyuti putra kartikeyabhirakitam’ iti||39||
When a pregnant woman feels as if the foetus got separated from her heart and entered into the lower abdomen and had approached the area of Basti sira (brim of the pelvis), when the frequency of labour pain has increased and the foetus has turned and is coming downwards, the physician should at this stage, make her lie down over a bed-stead (specially prepared for the purpose). She should then be asked strain so as to facilitate delivery. A woman favourably disposed to her should recite the following Mantra near her ears:
“(May the Prthvi, Akasha,Agni, Vayu, Vishnu and Prajapati protect you the pregnant one all times and facilitate the delivery of the child. O! Auspicious one, may the delivery take place without any distresses either to you or to your son, who be endowed with brilliance of Lord Kartikeya and also be protected by him)”. [39]
Duties of attendants

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ta’scaina yathoktagua striyo’nu’siyu-
anagatavirma pravahiha; ya hyanagatavi
pravahate vyarthamevasyastat karma bhavati,
praja casya vikta viktimapanna ca,
‘svasakasa’soaplihaprasakta va bhavati|
yatha hi kavathudgaravatamutrapuriavegan
prayatamano’pyapraptakalanna labhate kcchrea va’pyavapnoti,
tatha’nagatakala garbhamapi pravahamaa;
yatha caiameva kavathvadina sandharaamupaghatayopapadyate,
tatha praptakalasya garbhasyapravahaamiti|
sa yathanirde’sa kuruveti vaktavya syat|
tatha ca kurvati ‘sanai purva pravaheta, tato’nantara balavattaram|
tasya ca pravahamaaya striya ‘sabda kuryu-
‘prajata prajata dhanya dhanya putram’ iti|
tatha’sya hareapyayyante praa||40||
Ladies having the above mentioned (vide para-34) qualities should instruct her as follows:
“Do not strain in the absence of labour pain.” Straining in the absence of labour pain does not serve any useful purpose. It rather causes morbidity and deformity in the foetus and produces diseases like Svasa (breathlessness), Kasa (cough), Sosa (consumption) and Pliha (enlargement of Spleen). As in the absence of natural urges, sneezing, eructation, passage of flatus, urination and defecation do not occur, if at all they occur, they do so with considerable difficulty and artificial efforts. Similarly, premature straining in the absence of natural (normal) labour pain does not produce the desired result. As the suppression of manifested urges of sneezing etc. leads to disastrous effects, so does the absence of straining while there is labour pain. She is asked to obey the instructions. While doing so, she should put strain slowly in the beginning and gradually increase the pressure, while she puts strain, female attendants should say aloud, “thanks, you have delivered a son”. This gives her relief and joy, and adds to her regaining the vitality. {40}
Read – Management Of Labor In Ayurveda – Prasava Paricharya
Removal of Placenta
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yada ca prajata syattadaivainamaveketa- kacidasya apara prapanna na veti|
tasya’scedapara na prapanna syadathainamanyatama stri dakiena paina nabherupariadbalavannipiya savyena paina phata upasaghya ta sunirdhuta nirdhunuyat|
athasya parya ‘sroimakoayet|
asya sphicavupasaghya supiita piayet|
athasya balaveya kahatalu parim’set|
bhurjapatrakacamaisarpanirmokai’scasya yoni dhupayet|
kuhatalisakalka balvajayue maireyasuramae tike kaulatthe
va yue maukaparipippalisampake va samplavya payayedenam|
tatha sukmailakilimakuhanagara viagapippalikalagurucavyacitrakopaku~ncikakalka
kharavabhasya va jivato dakia karamutktya dadi jarjariktya
balvajakvathadinamaplavananamanyatame prakipyaplavya muhurtasthitamuddhtya tadaplavana payayedenam|
‘satapupakuhamadanahigusiddhasya caina tailasya picu grahayet|
ata’scaivanuvasayet|
etaireva caplavanai phalajimutekvakudhamargavakuajaktavedhanahastipippalyupahitairasthapayet|
tadasthapanamasya saha vatamutrapuriairnirharatyaparamasakta vayorevapratilomagatvat |
apara hi vatamutrapuriayanyani cantarbahirmargai sajjanti||41||
Immediately after delivery, she is examined for the placenta and it is confirmed if placenta has come out or not. If the placenta does not come out, the following measures are adopted:
One of the female attendants should forcefully press her (patient’s) abdomen (downwards) with her right hand from above the umbilical region while holding her (patient’s) back by her left hand and then shake the body of the patient well.
The attendant with her heels should press the hip region of patient.
The attendant should strongly press her butts with her hands.
Her throat is rubbed with the help of the braid of her hair.
Her vagina is fumigated by burning the bark of Bhurja (Betula utilis D. Don), Kacamani (Quartz) and slough of snake.
She is made to drink the paste of Kustha (Saussurea lappa C.B Clarke) and Talisa (Ablies webliana Lindl) mixed with either of the following:
– Decoction of Balvaja the scum of maireya or sura types of wine having an acute effect
– The decoction of Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Liinn)
– Decoction of Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Urban) and Pippali (Piper longum Linn)
A portion of the right ear of the untamed and alive bull is cut and smashed in a stone mortar, and this is added with the paste of Suksmaila (Elettaria cardamomum Moton), Kilima (Cedrus deodara Loud), Kustha (Saussurea lappa C. B Clarke), Nagara (Zingiber officinale Rosc), and Vidanga (Embelia ribes burnm f.),Pippali (Piper loungum Linn),Kalaguru (black variety of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb), Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn) and Upakunchika (Nigella sativa Linn). The paste should then be soaked in the decoction of Balvaja etc, described above and kept for some time. Then the paste is taken out and the liquid which has thus remained is given to her to drink.
The cotton swab soaked in oil boiled with Satapuspa (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), Kustha (Saussurea lappa. C.B Clarke), Madana (Randia dumetorum Lam) and Hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss) is kept in her genital tract. With this oil she is given Anuvasana Basti (unctuous enema).
The decoction of Balvaja is mixed with the paste of Phala (Randia Dumetorum Lam), Jimuta (Luffa Echinata Roxb), Iksvaku (Legearia siceraria Standl), Dhamargava (Luffa cylindria M. Roem), Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysentercia wall), Krtavedhana (Luffa acutangula Roxb), and Hastipippali (Scindapsus officinalis Schoot) and used for Asthapana (corrective) type of enema. By this Asthapana, there will be downward movement of Vayu (in the abdomen) as a result of which along with flatus, urine and stool, the placenta also comes out. Flatus, urine and stool, and such other excreta as having a tendency to come out of the body during normal course of events may get obstructed inside the abdomen resulting in the obstruction of the placenta from coming out. [41]
Read – Manual Expulsion Of Placenta – Ayurvedic Methods: Apara Patana
Management of new- born baby

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tasyastu khalvaparaya prapatanarthe karmai kriyamae jatamatrasyaiva
kumarasya karyayetani karmai bhavanti; tadyatha- a’smano
saghaana karayormule, ‘sitodakenoodakena va mukhaparieka,
tatha sa kle’savihatan praan punarlabheta|
kakapalika’surpea cainamabhinipuiyuryadyacea
syad yavat praana pratyagamanam (tattat sarvameva karyam)|
tata pratyagatapraa praktibhutamabhisamikya snanodakagrahaabhyamupapadayet||
athasya talvohakahajihvapramarjanamarabhetagulya
suparilikhitanakhaya suprakalitopadhanakarpasasapicumatya|
prathama pramarjitasyasya casya ‘sirastalu karpasapicuna snehagarbhea pratisa~nchadayet|
tato’syanantara saindhavopahitena sarpia karya pracchardanam||43||
While taking steps to bring out the placenta, the following measures are taken for the resuscitation of the foetus immediately after birth:
Stinking of stones near the ears of the child
Sprinkling with cold water (during summer) and warm water (during winter) on the face
By the above mentioned measures, the child will gain vitality. The child had lost this vitality as a result of the strain caused by the pressure of the genital tract during the process of its delivery. If after this, there is no movement, then the child should be fanned with the help of black earthen plates until the child starts breathing. For this to happen, all the above mentioned measures are required to be taken. When the respiration is established and the child attains normally, his excretory passages are cleaned with water and he is given bath.
Thereafter his palate, lips, throat and tongue are wiped with attendant’s finger from whih the nails are properly clipped of and which are well-cleansed and covered with cotton swabs. After cleaning his mouth, the Sirastalu (Anterior fontanelle in the head) of the child is covered with cotton swabs soaked with unctuous substances. Thereafter, the child is given to eat ghee mixed rock-salt for emesis. [42-23]
Separation of Umblical cord
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tata kalpana naya|
atastasya kalpanavidhimupadekyama-
nabhibandhanat prabhtyaagulamabhij~nana ktva
chedanavaka’sasya dvayorantarayo ‘sanairghitva
tikena raukmarajatayasana chedananamanyatamenardhadharea chedayet|
tamagre sutreopanibadhya kahe’sya ‘sithilamavasjet|
tasya cennabhi pacyeta,
ta lodhramadhukapriyagusuradaruharidrakalkasiddhena tailenabhyajyat,
eameva tailauadhana curenavacurayet|
iti naikalpanavidhirukta samyak||44||
Thereafter the cord is separated (by cutting and ligature). Now the method of separating the cord is being described. The cord is marked at a Distance of eight Angulas (approximately 25.5 cm) from its root where it is attached with the navel. Both the sides of the help of an ardhadhara type of instrument (having very sharp edge), made of gold, silver or steel, the cord is carefully tied with the help of a thread and the ends of the thread is loosely tied to the neck of the foetus.
If there is suppuration of the umbilical cord, the oil boiled with the paste of Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb), Madhuka, Suradaru (Cedrus deodara Loud) and Haridra (Curucma longa Linn) is applied. These very medicines which are prescribed to be used for the preparation of oil is made into powder and sprinkled over the suppurated umbilicus.
Thus the proper method of the separation of umbilical cord is discussed. [44]
Defective separation of the cord
Improper separation of the cord may cause the following morbidity due to the increase in length and breadth of the cord:
Ayamottundiata (elevation of the umbilicus length wise)
Vyayamottundiata (elevation of a circular ring around the breadth)
Pindalika (formation of a circular ring around the umbilicus)
Vinamika (elevation of the umbilicus in the periphery and depression in the center) and
Vijrmbhika (constant increase in the size of the umbilicus)
Carefully observing the seriousness or mildness of the afflicted Doshas, these conditions are treated by massage, unction and sprinkling of ghee prepared of drugs which are not irritative but alleviators of Vata and Pitta. [45]
Read – Nabhi Chikitsa: Navel treatment, Types, Method, Benefits
Birth- rites
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ato’nantara jatakarma kumarasya karyam|
tadyatha- madhusarpii mantropamantrite yathamnaya prathama pra’situ dadyat|
stanamata urdhvametenaiva vidhina dakia patu purastat prayacchet|
athata ‘sirata sthapayedudakumbha mantropamantritam||46||
Thereafter the birth rites of the foetus as prescribed in the Vedas are performed, which are as follows:
First of all, the child is given honey and ghee impregnated with Mantra prescribed for this purpose in the Vedas
Thereafter, following the same procedure, milk from the right breast is given to the child at first.
An earthen jar filled with water is impregnated with Mantras and kept near the head of the child. [46]
Protection of new-born
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athasya raka vidadhyat- adanikhadirakarkandhupiluparuaka’sakhabhirasya gha samantata parivarayet|
sarvata’sca sutikagarasya sarapatasitaulakaakaika prakireyu|
tatha taulabalihoma satatamubhayakala kriyetanamakarmaa|
dvare ca musala dehalimanu tira’scina nyaset|
vacakuhakaumakahigusarapatasila’sunakaakaikana rakoghnasamakhyatana
cauadhina poalika baddhva sutikagarasyottaradehalyamavasjet,
tatha sutikaya kahe saputraya, sthalyudakakumbhaparyakevapi, tathaiva ca dvayordvarapakayo|
kaakakaakendhanavanagnistindukakahendhana’scagni sutikagarasyabhyantarato nitya syat|
striya’scaina yathoktagua suhda’scanu’scanujagyurda’saha dvada’saha va|
anuparatapradanamagala’sistutigitavaditramannapanavi’sadamanuraktaprahajanasampura ca tadve’sma karyam|
brahmaa’scatharvavedavit satatamubhayakala ‘santi juhuyat svastyayanartha kumarasya tatha sutikaya|
ityetadrakavidhanamuktam||47||
Thereafter measures are taken for the protection of the child.
Branches of Adani, khadira (Acacia catechu Willd), Karkandhu (Zyzyphus nummularia W.A), Pilu (Salvadora persica Linn) and Parusaka (Grewia asiatica Linn) are placed all around the maternity home. Grains of mustard, Atasi (Linum ustitatissimum Linn), and broken rice is strewn in all places of the maternity home.

Till the name giving ceremony (which occurs on the 10th day after birth), Tandulabali homa (a type of Yajna in which rice is offered to the sacred fire) should be constantly performed both the times during the day. At the gate, a pestle is placed parallel to the threshold. Broken pieces of Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn), Kustha (Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke), and Ksaumaka Hingu (Ferula Narthex Boiss), Sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch) Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn) and Lasuna (Allium sativum Linn) and such other drugs which are known to provide protection from the attacks of evil sprits (like Guggulu or Commiphora mukul Engl) is tied in a packet and hanged to the upper beam of the threshold of the maternity home.

Similar packets are made to hang in the neck of the mother and the child. They are kept in cooking vessels, water jars, cot and doors of both the sides. Inside the maternity home, fire from the fuel of the thorn of Kanaka and wood of Tinduka (Diospyros peregrine Guurke) are constantly kept burning.
Female attendants having the attributes described in para 34 and friends of the lady should keep constant vigil by remaining awake for 10 or 12 days. The whole house is kept crowded with people who are pious, affectionate and happy, and engaged constantly in gifts, propitious blessings, praise, song, music, food and drinks. To bestow auspiciousness upon the mother and the child, Brahmans well versed with the Atharvaveda should constantly offer sacrifices in the scared fire during both the times of the day.
Thus measures to be adopted for the protection of the mother and the child are described. [47]
Management of mother after delivery

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sutika tu khalu bubhukita viditva sneha payayeta
paramaya ‘saktya sarpistaila vasa majjana va
satmyibhavamabhisamikya pippalipippalimulacavyacitraka’sgaveracurasahitam|
sneha pitavatya’sca sarpistailabhyamabhyajya veayedudara mahata’cchena vasasa;
tatha tasya na vayurudare viktimutpadayatyanavaka’satvat|
jire tu snehe pippalyadibhireva siddha yavagu susnigdha drava matra’sa payayet|
ubhayatakala coodakena ca pariecayet prak snehayavagupanabhyam|
eva pa~ncaratra saptaratra va’nupalya krameapyayayet|
svasthavttametavat sutikaya||48||
Ghee, oil, Vasa (muscle fat) and Majja (bone-marrow), whichever is found suitable, is given along with the powder of Pippali (Piper longum Linn), root of Pippali, Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn) and Srngavera (Zingiber officinale Rose) to the mother after she feels hungry.
The quantity of it is in conformity with the strength of the mother. After the intake of fat, her abdomen is anointed with ghee and oil, and wrapped round tightly with a long and clean cloth. By doing so, Vayu does not cause any morbidity in her abdomen because of the absence of any empty space therein.
After the unctuous potion is digested, gruel prepared by boiling with Pippali etc. is given in proper quantity. This gruel is in liquid form and added with unctuous substances. Before the administration of unctuous substances and gruel, she is maintained like this for five to seven nights and then gradually nourished.
These are the measures for the maintenance of positive health of the mother who has recently delivered [48]
Read – Ayurvedic Post Natal Care – The First Week After Delivery
Line of treatment of her ailments

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tasyastu khalu yo vyadhirutpadyate sa
kcchrasadhyo bhavatyasadhyo va,
garbhavddhikayita’sithilasarvadhatutvat,
pravahaavedanakledanaraktanisrutivi’sea’sunya’sariratvacca;
tasmatta yathoktena vidhinopacaret;
bhautikajivaniyabhaiyamadhuravataharasiddhairabhyagotsadanapariekavagahanannapanavidhibhirvi’seata’scopacaret;
vi’seato hi ‘sunya’sarira striya prajata bhavanti||49||
If she is afflicted with any disease in these situations, the condition becomes either difficult to cure or incurable because all the tissue elements of her body are diminished in quantity.
This is because the nutrition of the mother is utilized mostly for the growth of the foetus. Further her body is afflicted with emptiness because of the strain involved in labour pain and the loss of blood. This is treated according to the procedure already laid down. She is specifically treated by massage, sprinkling, bath, food, drink prepared with drugs which are Bhautika (alleviators of the effects of evil spirits and germs), Jivaniya (promoter of Vitality), Brmhaniya (promoter of corpulence), sweet in taste and Vatahara (alleviators of Vata) because the body of the woman specifically becomes empty after delivery. [49]
Read – Ayurvedic Post Natal Mother Care Based On Season And Place
Rites for naming the child

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da’same tvahani saputra stri sarvagandhauadhairgaurasarapalodhrai’sca
snata laghvahata’sucivastra paridhaya pavitrealaghuvicitrabhuaavati
ca sasp’sya magalanyucitamarcayitva ca devata ‘sikhina
‘suklavasaso’vyaga’sca brahmaan svasti vacayitva kumaramahatana
ca vasasa sa~ncaye prak’sirasamudak’sirasa va save’sya devatapurva
dvijatibhya praamatityuktva kumarasya pita dve
namani karayennakatrika namabhiprayika ca|
tatrabhiprayika ghoavadadyantasthantamumanta va’vddha
tripuruanukamanavapratihita, nakatrika tu nakatradevatasamanakhya dvyakara caturakara va||50||
On the tenth day, the mother along with her son is bathed in water boiled with all fragrant drugs, white mustard seeds and Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb). Then she should wear light, untorn, and clean apparel and ornaments which are clean, describle, light and variegated. Thereafter, she should touch auspicious things and offer prayer to appropriate diety and fire, and take blessings from Brahmanas who are dressed with white apparel and who have no deformity of organs.
The child is kept over a bed of untorn new cloths with his head towards the east or the north. Then the father should say that the child is offering prayer to the deity and Brahmanas, and then give two names – one Naksatrika (based upon the constellation in which the child was born) and the other Abhiprayika (the name by which he would be called or known in the family or society). The second category of name should begin with a letter of Ghosa character (e.g G , Gh, J, Jh, D, dh, d, dh and b, bh- according to Cakrapani only voiced aspirated stops) and end with letters of Antyastha character (viz, ya, ra, la, and va) or Usma character (viz, sa, sa, sa and Ha). There should not be letters of vrddhi category (diphthongs) in this type of name and it is in conformity with the pattern of naming a child representing three generations (father, grand father and great grandfather). The name should also be a famous one.
The Naksatrika type of name should have similarity with that of the God who is ascribed to the constellation in which the child is born. It is composed of either two or four letters. [50]
Read – Naming Ceremony Of The Child Namakarana Samskara
Examination of the child to ascertain his span of life
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vtte ca namakarmai kumara parikitumupakrametayua pramaaj~nanaheto|
tatremanyayumata kumaraa lakaani bhavanti|
tadyatha- ekaikaja mdavo’lpa snigdha subaddhamula
ka ke’sa pra’sasyante, sthira bahala tvak,
praktya’tisampannamiatpramaativttamanurupamatapatropama ‘sira, vyuha dha sama su’slia’sakhasandhyurdhvavya~njanasampannamupacita valibhamardhacandrakti lalaa,
bahalau vipulasamapihau samau nicairvddhau phato’vanatau su’sliakaraputrakau
mahacchidrau karau, iatpralambinyavasagate same sahate mahatyau bhruvau,
same samahitadar’sane vyaktabhagavibhage balavati tejasopapanne svagapage cakui,
jvi mahocchvasa va’sasampanneadavanatagra nasika, mahadjusuniviadantamasyam, ayamavistaropapanna ‘slaka tanvi praktivarayukta jihva,
‘slaka yuktopacayamumopapanna rakta talu, mahanadina
snigdho’nunadi gambhirasamuttho dhira svara,
natisthulau natik’sau vistaropapannavasyapracchadanau raktavohau,
mahatyau hanu, vtta natimahati griva, vyuhamupacitamura,
guha jatru phava’sa’sca, viprakantarau stanau,
asampatini sthire par’sve, vttaparipurayatau bahu sakthini agulaya’sca,
mahadupacita paipada, sthira vtta snigdhastamrastuga
kurmakara karaja, pradakiavarta sotsaga ca nabhi,
urastribhagahina sama samupacitamasa kai,
vttau sthiropacitamasau natyunnatau natyavanatau sphicau,
anupurva vttavupacayayuktavuru, natyupacite natyapacite eipade
praguhasirasthisandhi jaghe, natyupacitau natyapacitau gulphau,
purvopadiaguau padau kurmakarau, praktiyuktani vatamutrapuriaguhyani
tatha svaprajagaraayasasmitaruditastanagrahaani,
yacca ki~ncidanyadapyanuktamasti tadapi sarva praktisampannamia, viparita punaraniam|
iti dirghayurlakaani||51||
After performing the rites for giving a name to the child, he is examined with a view to ascertaining the span of his life. The following signs and symptoms are those of children having a long span of life:

To a child having a long span of a life is given to normal flatus, urine, stool, anus, sleep, vigil, fatigue, smiling, crying, sucking of milk and similar other factors/phenomena which are not described here, they are neither more nor less than the normal.
If the child is with the organs/ phenomena having attributes in contradiction with what is described above, then they are indicative of less span of life of the child.
Thus ends the signs and symptoms of a child having a long span of life. [51]
Read – Ayurvedic Care Of The Newborn Baby: Jatamatra Paricharya
Selection of wet-nurse
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ato dhatriparikamupadekyama|
atha bruyat- dhatrimanaya samanavara yauvanastha nibhtamanaturamavyagamavyasanamavirupamajugupsita
de’sajatiyamakudramakudrakarmii kule jata vatsalamaroga jivadvatsa puvatsa
dogdhrimapramattamanuccara’sayinimanantyavasayini ku’salopacara ‘sucima’sucidveii stanastanyasampadupetamiti||52||
Now we shall describe the procedure to be adopted in selecting a wet-nurse. She is of the same caste, youthful (women before the attainment of youth have immature tissue elements and the tissue elements of old women had undergone destruction- hence they are not suitable to be employed as wet nurse), submissive, free from diseases, not deficient of limbs, not given to luxuries living, not ugly looking (because of deformity in her organs), not given to hateful disposition, born in the same locality, not mean minded, not hateful disposition, born in the same locality, not given to mean acts, born in a respectable family, having affection for children, free from illness, having living children, having sons, having plenty of milk, careful, not given to sleeping over clothes soiled with excreta, not having a husband of lower caste (e.g a sudra woman having a Candala Husband), skilful in service, observing cleanliness, having aversion for dirty things, having the excellence of breasts and milk. [52]
Read – Qualities of Ideal Wet Nurse: Dhatri Lakshana
Excellence of breasts
– ()||||
tatreya stanasampat- natyurdhvau natilambavanatik’savanatipinau yuktapippalakau sukhaprapanau ceti (stanasampat)||53||
The qualities of excellent breasts are as follows:
They are situated at a very high level in the chest
They should not hang very loose
They should neither be very lean nor very plump
They have nipples of proportionate size
The child should find it easy to suckle them.
This is about the excellence of breasts. [53]
Excellence of breast- milk
,
; ()||
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stanyasampattu praktivaragandharasaspar’sam, udapatre ca duhyamanamudaka vyeti
praktibhutatvat; tat puikaramarogyakara ceti (stanyasampat)||
ato’nyatha vyapanna j~neyam|
tasya vi’sea- ‘syavaruavara kaayanurasa vi’sadamanalakyagandha ruka drava phenila
laghvatptikara kar’sana vatavikaraa kart vatopasa kiramabhij~neya
kanilapitatamravabhasa tiktamlakaukanurasa kuaparudhiragandhi
bh’soa pittavikaraa kart ca pittopasa kiramabhij~neyam,
atyartha’suklamatimadhuryopapanna lavaanurasa ghtatailavasamajjagandhi
picchila tantumadukapatre’vasidachlemavikaraa kart ‘slemopasa kiramabhij~neyam||55||
Milk of excellent quality should have natural colour, smell, taste and touch. When poured over the water in a pot, it gets mixed up with the water if it is endowed with natural qualities. This provides nourishment and maintains good health of the child.
If the qualities of milk do not conform to the above, then it is considered as vitiated.
Read – Human Breast Milk Benefits, Ways To Increase Production

Characteristic features of the milk vitiated with Doshas are as follows:
Treatment of vitiated breast- milk

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tea tu trayaamapi kiradoaa prativi’seamabhisamikya yathasva
yathadoa ca vamanavirecanasthapananuvasanani vibhajya ktani pra’samanaya bhavanti|
pana’sanavidhistu duakiraya yavagodhuma’saliaikamudgahareukakulatthasurasauvirakamaireyamedakala’sunakara~njapraya syat|
kiradoavi’sea’scavekyavekya tattadvidhana karya syat|
pahamahauadhasuradarumustamurvaguucivatsakaphalakiratatiktakakaukarohiisarivakaayaa
ca pana pra’sasyate, tatha’nyea tiktakaayakaukamadhuraa dravyaa prayoga kiravikaravi’seanabhisamikya matra kala ca|
iti kiravi’sodhanani||56||
When (breast) milk gets vitiated, the specific nature of the vitiation is ascertained, and depending upon the Doshas involved and the quantum of their vitiation, the mother is given Vamana (emetic therapy), Virechana (purgation therapy), asthapana (corrective enema) and Anuvasana (unctuous enema) which ever is found suitable, for the cure of the ailment.
The food and drink of the mother whose milk is vitiated should for the most part consist of barley, wheat, Shali (Oryza Sativa Linn), Sasthika (a type of Shali), Mudga (Vigna radiata), harenuka (Lathyrus aphaca Linn), alcoholic preparations like Sura, Sauviraka Maireyaka and Medaka, Merr). Suitable regimens are advised to her depending upon the specific nature of the vitiation of milk.

Keeping in view the specific nature of the vitiation of milk, dose and time, it is beneficial to administer the decoction of Patha (Cissampelos pareira Linn), Mahausadha (Zingiber officinale Rosc), Suradaru (Cedrus deodara Loud), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn), Murva (Clematis triloba) Heyne ex Roth), Guduci (Tinspora cordifolia Miers), fruit of Vatsaka (Holarrhena antidysentrica wall) Kiratatikta (Swertia chirata Buch -Han), Katurohini (Picrohiza kurroa Royle ex Benth) (Individually or all of them together) and Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.B) and such other drugs having bitter, astringent, pungent and sweet tastes.
Thus the measures for the correction of the vitiation of milk are described. [56]
Read – Breast Milk Disorders: Symptoms, Detoxification, Remedies
Promoters of Lactation
,
,
, ,
,
()||||
kirajananani tu madyani sidhuvarjyani,
gramyanupaudakani ca ‘sakadhanyamasani,
dravamadhuramlalavaabhuyiha’scahara, kiriya’scauadhaya,
kirapanamanayasa’sca, viraaaika’salikuvalikadarbhaku’saka’sagundretkaamulakaayaa
ca panamiti (kirajananani)||57||
The following are the promoters of lactation:
Wines except Sidhu (a type of wine)
Vegetable, corns and meat of animals which are domesticated and which inhabit the marshy land and water.
Food having the predominance of liquid ingredients or ingredients having sweet, sour and saline tastes
Medicinal plants having milky juice like Dugdhika and Kalambika (Ipomea reptans Poir).
Intake of milk and care free living
Intake of the decoction of the roots of Virana (Vetiveria zizanioides nash), Sasthika (a type of Shali) (Oryza sativa Linn), Iksuvalika (Astercantha longifolia Nees), Darbha (a type of Kusa), Kusa (Demostachya bipinnata Stapf), Kasha (Saccharum spontaneum Linn).
These are the promoters of lactation. [57]
Read – Stanya Janana Gana: Lactation Promoting Herbs: Review, Benefits, Formulations
Procedure for feeding the child

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dhatri tu yada svadubahula’suddhadugdha syattadasnatanulipta
‘suklavastra paridhayaindri brahmi ‘satavirya sahasraviryamamoghamavyatha
‘sivamaria vayapupi vivaksenakanta va bibhratyoadhi kumara pramukha prathama dakia stana payayet|
iti dhatrikarma||58||
The milk of the wetnurse is sweet in taste, copious and pure. Such a wet-nurse should take her bath, use unction, wear white cloth as well as medicines like Aindri (Citrullus colocynthis Schard), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Satavirya (Cynodon datcylon Pers), Sahasravirya (a type of satavirya), Amogha (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), Avyatha (Tinspora cordifolia Miers), Siva (Terminalia chebula Linn), Arista (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth), Vatyapuspi (Sida rhombifolia Linn) and Visvaksenakanta (Callicarpa macropylla). Thereafter, keeping the child facing towards the east, she should make him to suckle her right breast first.
Thus the duties of a wetnurse are described. [58]
Nursery

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ato’nantara kumaragaravidhimanuvyakhyasyama-
vastuvidyaku’sala pra’sasta ramyamatamaska nivata
pravataikade’sa dhamapagata’svapadapa’sudarimuikapataga
suvibhaktasalilolukhalamutravarcasthanasnanabhumimahanasamtusukha
yathartu’sayanasanastaraasampanna kuryat;
tatha suvihitarakavidhanabalimagalahomapraya’scitta ‘sucivddhavaidyanuraktajanasampuram|
iti kumaragaravidhi||59||
Now we shall describe the procedure for the construction of a nursery for the child. The nursery is constructed under the supervision of an expert architect. It should be
A commendable one
Beautiful
Free from darkness
Sheltered from drought
Admitting air only from one side
Sturdy
Free from Svapada (animals in general), Damstrin (fanged creatures), Rats and moths
Well planned places for water storage, grinding, lavatory, bathroom and kitchen
Comfortable for living in all seasons (air conditioned) and
Furnished with beds, seats and spreads in conformity with the needs of that particular season
There should be proper arrangement for the protection of the house from outside attacks. Sacrifices, auspicious rites, offering of oblations and recitation of verses are performed in the house. This house is kept crowded with persons who are clean, experienced physicians and those who have attachment with the family.
Thus the procedure for the construction of the nursery is described. [59]
Cleanliness of beds etc
;
;
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‘sayanasanastaraapravaraani kumarasya mdulaghu’sucisugandhini syu;
svedamalajantumanti mutrapuriopasani ca varjyani syu;
asati sambhave’nyea tanyeva ca suprakalitopadhanani sudhupitani ‘suddha’sukayupayoga gaccheyu||60||
Beds, seats, spreads and apparel of the child should be soft, light, clean and fragrant. Those which are soiled with sweat, excreta, germs, urine and stool is discarded. If it is not possible to procure new ones, then the old ones should be well exposed to sun after they are washed thoroughly. Thus they can be used only after they are rendered clean and dry. [60]
Read – Kumaragara: Children Ward (Room), Ayurvedic Perspective
Drugs for fumigation of cloths

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dhupanani punarvasasa ‘sayanastaraapravaraana ca
yavasarapatasihigugugguluvacacorakavayasthagolomijailapalakaa’sokarohiisarpanirmokai ghtayuktani syu||61||
Barley, mustard, Atasi (Linum usitutissimum Linn), Hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul Engl), Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn), Coraka (Angelica glauca Edgw), Vayastha (bacopa Monnieri Pennel), Golomi (a type of Vaca), Jatila (Nardostachys jatamansi D. C), Palankasha (a type of guggulu), Asoka (Saraca indica Linn), Rohini (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth) and slough of snake mixed with ghee is used for fumigation of clothes used for beds, spreads and apparel. [61]
Wearing talismans

;
,
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maaya’sca dharaiya kumarasya khagarurugavayavabhaa
jivatameva dakiebhyo viaebhyo’grai ghitani syu;
aindryadya’scauadhayo jivakarabhakau ca,
yani canyanyapi brahmaa pra’saseyuratharvavedavida||62||
The child is made to wear the following as tailsmans:
Jewels – like pearls etc (as prescribed in the Atharva Veda)
Tips of the right horns of rhinocirous, deer, gayal or bull collected when they are alive
Medicinal plants like Aindri etc. (vide para 58 of this chapter and sutra 4:18) Jivaka (?) and Rsabhaka (?)
Such other things as are praised and prescribed by the Brahmanas well versed with the AtharvaVeda. [62]
Toys

||||
krianakani khalu kumarasya vicitrai ghoavantyabhiramai cagurui
catikagrai canasya prave’sini capraaharai cavitrasanani syu||63||
Toys of the child is variegated, sound producing, beautiful, light, without sharp edge, incapable of being swallowed, fraught with no danger to life and unfrightening [63]
Child should not be frightened
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na hyasya vitrasana sadhu|
tasmattasmin rudatyabhu~njane va’nyatra vidheyatamagacchati
rakasapi’sacaputanadyana namanyahvayata kumarasya
vitrasanartha namagrahaa na karya syat||64||
One should not frighten the child (at any stage), therefore, whether he cries or does not eat or does not submit to discipline, he must not be frightened by calling the names of Raksasa, Pisaca, Putana etc. (all evil creatures). [64]
Read – Playground and Toys for Children As Explained In Ayurveda
Management of Pediatric diseases

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yadi tvaturya ki~ncit kumaramagacchet tatpraktinimittapurvarupaligopa’sayavi’seaistattvato’nubudhya
sarvavi’seanaturauadhade’sakala’srayanavekamaa’scikitsitumarabhetaina
madhuramdulaghusurabhi’sita’sakara karma pravartayan|
evasatmya hi kumara bhavanti|
tatha te ‘sarma labhante ciraya|
aroge tvarogavttamatihedde’sakalatmaguaviparyayea vartamana,
krameasatmyani parivartyopayu~njana sarvayahitani varjayet|
tatha balavara’sarirayua sampadamavapnotiti||
evamena kumaramayauvanaprapterdharmarthakau’salagamanaccanupalayet||66||
If the child gets afflicted with any disease, it should be properly diagnosed, with due regard to the specific nature of the etiology, premonitory symptoms, symptoms and Upasaya (homologatory signs) of the disease. Simultaneously, characteristic features of the patient, drugs, locality, season and physical constitution of the child is examined.

Thereafter, he should be treated by administering therapies which are sweet, soft, light, fragnant, cold and comfortable and those which yield long standing effects. If he is free from any disease whatsoever, the child should be made to resort to regimens which are opposite in quality to the locality, time and bodily constitution for the maintenance of positive health. Unwholesome regimens should gradually be avoided. By doing so, the child gets endowed with excellent strength, complexion, physical constitution and span of life.
In this manner, from childhood to youth, the child is brought up till he is competent to perform religious rites and earn wealth. [65-66]
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iti putra’sia samddhikara karma vyakhyatam|
tadacaran yathoktairvidhibhi puja yathea labhate’nasuyaka iti||67||
Thus the measures for the fulfilment of desire to have progeny are described. By taking recourse to these factors in the prescribed manner, one who is free from envy is blessed (with progeny) according as he wishes. [67]
Read – Infant Care As Per Ayurveda: Initial 6 Months

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tatra ‘slokau-
putra’sia karma samddhikaraka yaduktametanmahadarthasahitam|
tadacaran j~no vidhibhiryathatatha puja yathea labhate’nasuyaka||68||
To sum up:-
Measures described here fulfill the desire of the individual to obtain a son and they are of great importance. By taking recourse to these measures in a prescribed manner, wise man free envy is blessed (with a child) according as he wishes. [68]
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‘sarira cintyate sarva daivamanuasampada|
sarvabhavairyatastasmaccharira sthanamucyate||69||

This section is known as “Sharirasthana” because it deals with the description of the knowledge which is conducive to be understanding of all the godly and human aspects of the phenomena in the individual’s body. [69

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ityagnive’sakte tantre carakapratisaskte ‘sarirasthane
jatisutriya ‘sarira namaamo’dhyaya||
iti carakasahitaya cathurtha ‘sarirasthana sampuram
Thus ends the eighth chapter of the Sharira section dealing with the description of the method of procreation as conducive to the understanding of the human body, of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka. [8]
Thus ends the Sharira Section.
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